In finding organic dietderived antioxidant to stop oxidative damage [18,19]. As a result many research have been carried out on natural sources to Nav1.7 Antagonist Compound unravel the elements which possess antioxidant properties and with low cytotoxicities . Natural antioxidants are normally a lot more desirable for consumption than the synthetic 1 for example butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) which was reported to become carcinogenic to humans . Recently, a lot of studies happen to be carried out on the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds which have aroused rising interest within the isolation of such compounds present within the plants . Cancer is a genetic illness, that is mostly driven by genetic instability, which PKCδ Activator Purity & Documentation includes changes in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes which leads to the expression of abnormal proteins involved within the stimulation of cell proliferation and survival [23,24]. A sizable body of evidences have shown that no cost radicals have been implicated in the improvement of cancer in humans [25,26]. One particular instance from the free of charge radicals, may be the hydroxyl radical which can cause genetic mutation by forming adduct with guanine to kind hydroxylated bases of DNA (8 hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine) causing transversions of GC (guanine-cytosine) to TA (thymine-adenine) [27,28]. Epidemiologic research have also shown that cancer could possibly be because of a number of variables like exposure to environmental carcinogenic agents, way of life (tobacco and alcohol consumption), nutritional habit and infectious agents [29-32]. These variables can initiate and promote carcinogenesis which might progress to cancer. Towards the most effective of our know-how, there isn’t any antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation on extracts of this species. Hence, this paper reports the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of your crude aqueous methanol and fractionated extracts in the rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis and to ascertain the phenolic content. This study also aims to correlate the phenolic content material from the crude and fractionated extracts with its antioxidant properties. The active extract was additional subjected to gas chromatography ass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for identification in the components present within the extract.MethodsSample collectionThe rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis were collected from Pahang, Malaysia. This species was authenticated by Professor Dr Halijah Ibrahim, from Faculty of Science, University of Malaya and also a voucher specimen (No. KLU 46177) deposited within the university herbarium.Phang et al. BMC Complementary and Option Medicine 2013, 13:243 biomedcentral/1472-6882/13/Page three ofReagents and chemicalsButylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ascorbic acid, FolinCiocalteu’s phenol reagent, -carotene, linoleic acid, Tween 80, gallic acid and two,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), potassium ferricyanide have been acquired from Sigma-Aldrich. Methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and trichloroacetic acid were obtained from Merck. All solvents had been bought in analytical grade.Human cell line and culture medium. The crude methanolic extract, hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and optimistic handle (BHA and ascorbic acid) were dissolved in methanol whilst water fraction was dissolved in distilled water. The total phenolic content material (mg/ g of plant extract) inside the crude aqueous methanol extract and its fractions expressed in gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Mean values had been calculated from 3 measurement.DPPH radical scavenging assayThe cell lines were bought in the American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC, USA).