Showed 4 amino acid variations (in the 362nd, 370th, 378th and 388th positions) and domain 7 showed one amino acid variation (at the 548th position) among the distinctive E. coli strains. Interestingly, a number of alignments of E. coli CBD3 showed that potentially pathogenic E. coli strains clustered completely corresponding to their respective distinct polymorphisms, whereas nonpathogenic strains formed a different separate group, indicating that this exclusive five amino acid variation seemed to become linked with pathogenicity of E. coli [Figure 2B]. To address the functional relevance of those 5 polymorphic residues, we created an AIEC LF82 mutant strain (LF82-chiA/chiALF82-5MU), in which LF82-chiA strain isGastroenterology. Author manuscript; offered in PMC 2014 September 01.Low et al.Pagecomplemented with the mutated chiA gene from LF82-WT containing mutations around the 5 amino acids (Q362K, E370K, V378A, V388E and E548V) [Supplementary Table 2]. We also produced an further mutant strain (LF82-chiA/chiAK12) which has been complemented with an orthologous chiA gene from the non-pathogenic E. coli strain K12. We identified that apart from LF82-chiA mutant, the remaining five E. coli strains retained their Bradykinin B2 Receptor (B2R) Storage & Stability chitinase enzymatic activities as a consequence of the intact glycohydrolase domain present in the C-terminus [Figure 2C]. Nonetheless, only LF82-chiA, LF82-chiA/chiAK12 and LF82-chiA/ chiALF82-5MU E. coli mutants had markedly decreased adhesion to Caco2 and SW480 IECs, as compared to LF82-WT and -chiA/chiALF82 strains [Figure 2D]. Comparable pattern of adhesion with all the unique AIEC strains was also observed in polarized T84 IECs [Supplementary Figure 2A]. Furthermore, EGFR/ErbB1/HER1 Gene ID CHI3L1 expression was detected on the apical side of polarized T84 IECs, hence correlating localization with functionality [Supplementary Figure 2B]. These observations suggest that the particular genotype of ChiA CBDs may have an influence around the bacterial adhesiveness and therefore pathogenicity of E. coli on host cells. AIEC LF82 adhesion increases IFN and IL-8 production but not TNF and CHI3L1 expression Since earlier report showed that CHI3L1 facilitates the potential of bacteria to adhere and invade on/into IECs and that LF82-infected macrophages secreted significant amounts of TNF, we measured the amount of secreted CHI3L1 and TNF in the culture supernatant of SW480 IECs infected with LF82-WT or LF82 mutant strains by ELISA [1, 12]. We discovered no apparent differences in each CHI3L1 and TNF levels in SW480 IECs infected with LF82-WT or LF82 mutant strains, suggesting that AIEC LF82 binding itself will not influence CHI3L1 or TNF production in IECs [Supplementary Figure 3A]. In line with prior reports showing elevated IL-8 production upon adhesion of mucosaassociated E. coli to IECs in UC and CD patients, cells infected by LF82-WT and -chiA/ chiALF82 strains up-regulated IL-8 production, whereas LF82-chiA-, -chiA/chiAK12-, chiA/chiALF82-5MU- and 52D11-infected cells made IL-8 levels that were lower than LF82-WT- and -chiA/chiALF82-infected cells [Supplementary Figure 3B] [19, 20]. To confirm this observation, we co-transfected IL-8 promoter-luciferase reporter vector and CMV promoter-renilla reporter vector into SW480 cells and infected the cells with LF82WT or its 5 mutant strains, and discovered significantly greater luciferase activity levels in LF82WT- and -chiA/chiALF82-infected SW480 cells, when when compared with cells infected with any of your other 4 mutant strains [Supplementary Figure 3C]. Escalating rep.