E G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in endometriosis, in normal endometrium
E G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in endometriosis, in normal endometrium and in the positive control. (A-C) NSC309132 web expression PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28298493 of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in ovarian endometriosis with strong cytoplasmic and partial nuclear expression in the epithelium and strong nuclear expression in the stroma (A, 200? B, 400?, compared to normal endometrium with positive nuclear and lack of cytoplasmic GPER expression (C, 200?. (D-E) GPER expression from breast carcinoma as a positive control with (D, 200? strong cytoplasmic and negative nuclear GPER expression, as well as with (E, 200? weak cytoplasmic and strong nuclear GPER expression.endometrial and endometriotic cells. Nuclear cytoplasmic GPER expression was significantly increased in the stroma of endometriosis compared to normal endometrial stroma. To date, the localization of GPER has been a subject of debate. Some authors have argued that GPER is localizedTable 2 Frequencies of the epithelial expression levels of GPER (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and the classical sex hormone receptors in normal endometrium and endometriosisReceptor Expression level Endometrium Endometriosis p-value GPER cyt High Low GPER nuc High Low ER-alpha High Low ER-beta High Low PR High Low 0/30 30/30 (100 ) 19/30 (63.3 ) 11/30 (36.7 ) 28/30 (93.3 ) 2/30 (6.7 ) 3/30 (10 ) 27/30 (90 ) 29/30 (96.7 ) 1/30 (3.3 ) 30/60 (50 ) 30/60 (50 ) 42/60 (70 ) 18/60 (30 ) 57/63 (90.5 ) 6/63 (9.5 ) 35/65 (53.8 ) 30/65 (46.2 ) 42/60 (70 ) 18/60 (30 ) 0.005 <0.001 0.7 0.6 <0.to the plasma membrane, while others have suggested that the receptor is located within the endoplasmic reticulum, as indicated by microscopy studies using fluorescencelabeled 17-alpha-substituted estrogen derivatives [8,19-22]. Additionally, in a recent study, the nuclear localization of GPER was demonstrated in fibroblasts, indicating thatTable 3 Frequencies of the stromal expression levels of GPER (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and the classical sex hormone receptors in normal endometrium and endometriosisReceptor Expression level Endometrium Endometriosis p-value GPER nuc High Low ER-alpha High Low ER-beta High Low PR High Low 23/30 (76.7 ) 7/30 (23.3 ) 25/30 (83.3 ) 5/30 (16.7 ) 2/30 (6.7 ) 28/30 (93.3 ) 30/30 (100 ) 0/30 74/74 (100 ) 0/74 68/70 (97.1 ) 2/70 (2.9 ) 35/71 (49.3 ) 36/71 (50.7 ) 70/72 (97.2 ) 2/72 (2.8 ) 0.6 <0.001 0.02 <0.GPER G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (cyt cytoplasmic, nuc nuclear staining), ER estrogen receptor, PR progesterone receptor. P-Values were calculated by an exact 2-sided Pearson chi-square test; p 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and is reported in bold type.GPER G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (nuc nuclear staining); ER estrogen receptor; PR progesterone receptor. No cytoplasmic GPER expression was detected in the stroma of endometrium and endometriosis. P-Values were calculated by an exact PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28827318 2-sided Pearson chi-square test; p 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and is reported in bold type.Samartzis et al. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2012, 10:30 http://www.rbej.com/content/10/1/Page 8 ofTable 4 Frequencies of the epithelial expression levels of GPER (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and the classical sex hormone receptors in different types of endometriosisReceptor GPER cyt Expression level High Low GPER nuc High Low ER-alpha High Low ER-beta High Low PR High Low Ovarian Endometriosis 14/20 (70.0 ) 6/20 (30.0 ) 16/20 (80.0 ) 4/20 (20.0 ) 18/23 (78.3 ) 5/23 (21.7 ) 11/2.

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