S BF.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155923 June 17,21 /Digital Norm Enforcement

S BF.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155923 June 17,21 /Digital Norm Enforcement in Online Firestorms
The vast streams of data that are produced by the use of automated digital services such as social media, email and mobile phones, also known as `Big Data’, have for some time been leveraged in the private sector to assist in tasks as diverse as logistics, targeted advertising and offering personalised multimedia content. More recently, these same data sources and methodologies have begun to be used to assist humanitarian and development organisations, allowing new ways to use data to implement, monitor and evaluate programs and policies [1]. ThePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,1 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National Wellbeingdefault.aspx); Postal Network data as used in the analysis is available as a Supporting Information file. Funding: Desislava Hristova received funding from the Project LASAGNE, Contract No. 318132 (STREP), funded by the European Commission and EPSRC Grant GALE (EP/K019392). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.ability of such novel data sources to complement traditional data collection techniques such as household surveys and focus groups is clear [2]. The data is collected passively without the need for costly and potentially dangerous active data collection, which also avoids RP54476MedChemExpress RP54476 inaccuracies due to human error, bias [3] or dishonesty. However, the use of Big Data for development is still relatively nascent and questions remain over the ability of such sources to measure or approximate metrics of interest. Invariably, data sources such as social networking applications enjoy TAK-385 site deeper penetration in developed economies and rely on expensive technologies such as smart phones and robust communications infrastructure. It has been noted that measurements of human dynamics based on such recent platforms can lead to strong biases [4], with worse implications for those with limited access to these digital platforms. In this paper we present analysis of a data source which is undoubtedly `Big’ yet represents one of the most established and pervasive long-distance communications networks in the history of mankind. The international postal network (IPN) established in 1874 is administered by a dedicated United Nations specialised agency: the Universal Postal Union (UPU). Due to regulatory reporting requirements and the capabilities of automated data capture technologies such as RFID tags, the records of individual postal items maintained by UPU represent a rich record of human activity with unparalleled penetration, which can be expected to reflect individual level behaviour, local, regional and national economic activity and international economic relations. Network representations have emerged as an extremely powerful and general framework for analysing and modeling systems as diverse as transportation, biological processes, academic authorship and logistics among others [5]. Network science provides powerful tools for understanding such systems with large sets of coupled components with emergent behaviours more generally known as complex systems. Previous work has explored flows of both physical and digital nature, where physical flows of goods and people [6?2] and digital flows of information an.S BF.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155923 June 17,21 /Digital Norm Enforcement in Online Firestorms
The vast streams of data that are produced by the use of automated digital services such as social media, email and mobile phones, also known as `Big Data’, have for some time been leveraged in the private sector to assist in tasks as diverse as logistics, targeted advertising and offering personalised multimedia content. More recently, these same data sources and methodologies have begun to be used to assist humanitarian and development organisations, allowing new ways to use data to implement, monitor and evaluate programs and policies [1]. ThePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,1 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National Wellbeingdefault.aspx); Postal Network data as used in the analysis is available as a Supporting Information file. Funding: Desislava Hristova received funding from the Project LASAGNE, Contract No. 318132 (STREP), funded by the European Commission and EPSRC Grant GALE (EP/K019392). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.ability of such novel data sources to complement traditional data collection techniques such as household surveys and focus groups is clear [2]. The data is collected passively without the need for costly and potentially dangerous active data collection, which also avoids inaccuracies due to human error, bias [3] or dishonesty. However, the use of Big Data for development is still relatively nascent and questions remain over the ability of such sources to measure or approximate metrics of interest. Invariably, data sources such as social networking applications enjoy deeper penetration in developed economies and rely on expensive technologies such as smart phones and robust communications infrastructure. It has been noted that measurements of human dynamics based on such recent platforms can lead to strong biases [4], with worse implications for those with limited access to these digital platforms. In this paper we present analysis of a data source which is undoubtedly `Big’ yet represents one of the most established and pervasive long-distance communications networks in the history of mankind. The international postal network (IPN) established in 1874 is administered by a dedicated United Nations specialised agency: the Universal Postal Union (UPU). Due to regulatory reporting requirements and the capabilities of automated data capture technologies such as RFID tags, the records of individual postal items maintained by UPU represent a rich record of human activity with unparalleled penetration, which can be expected to reflect individual level behaviour, local, regional and national economic activity and international economic relations. Network representations have emerged as an extremely powerful and general framework for analysing and modeling systems as diverse as transportation, biological processes, academic authorship and logistics among others [5]. Network science provides powerful tools for understanding such systems with large sets of coupled components with emergent behaviours more generally known as complex systems. Previous work has explored flows of both physical and digital nature, where physical flows of goods and people [6?2] and digital flows of information an.

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