Ed by CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg.10,13,37 In addition to CD4+ Treg

Ed by CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg.10,13,37 In addition to CD4+ Treg, an immunosuppressive subset of CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes found in the small intestine was found to express fgl2 mRNA.38 Furthermore, Li et al. recently HMPL-012MedChemExpress HMPL-012 demonstrated in a rat cardiac transplant model that tolerogenic CD8+CD45RClow Treg expressed high levels of fgl2 mRNA compared to na e CD8+ Treg.39 A list of these FGL2-expressing Treg and their properties is shown in Table 2. In an early report, we demonstrated that FGL2 directly inhibits T cell proliferation in response to various stimuli (alloantigen, ConA, and anti-CD3/ anti-CD28 mAbs) and promotes a Th2 response. Furthermore, FGL2 was found to inhibit the maturation of bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC), reducing their ability to stimulate T cells in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) co-cultures.40 In order to elucidate further the role of FGL2, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of fgl2 (fgl2-/-) and found that these mice have increased T cell, B cell, and DC reactivity compared to fgl2+/+ wild-type mice (Figure 2).13 Furthermore, Treg isolated from fgl2-/mice had impaired ability to suppress effector T cell proliferation. The fgl2-/- mice also develop autoimmune glomerulonephritis as they age, likely related to the state of immune activation.Figure 2. Immunoregulatory Function of FGL2. Mice deficient in FGL2 (fgl2-/-) have enhanced T cell, B cell, and DC function as shown in the figure. The fgl2-/- mice develop autoimmune glomerulonephritis as they age reflective of chronic immune activation. DC, dendritic cell; LPS, lipopolysaccharide.Rambam Maimonides Medical JournalJuly 2015 Volume 6 Issue 3 eTreg and FGL2 in Alloimmunity and AutoimmunityTable 2. FGL2-expressing Regulatory T Cells. Molecule TCR Co-receptor CD8 , MHC-I/II restricted CD8+CD45RClow , MHC-I restricted DNT cells CD4+Foxp3+, MHC-II restricted , MHC-II-restricted Absent CDCD8 CD8 Small subset express CD4 or CD8 Lin-cells in intestinal epithelium, Sch66336 site cryptopatches Thymus (induced IEL from conventional T cells) Thymus-independent Self-antigen, foreign antigen, oligoclonal CD69, FasL, granzymes, CD122, B220, NK-Like receptors Negative for CD2, CD5, CD28, LFA-1, mostly Thy1-negative Low CD5 in intestine, TGF-3, LAG-3, FGL2 Homeostasis in intestine (food and microbes in lamina propria) More common in the small intestine Inhibitory NK receptors CD8 recruitment of LAT and LCK from the TCR CD45RClow, Foxp3, GITR, IL-10, and IL13 UnknownOriginThymus, peripheryThymusDevelopmentCD40-Ig treatmentThymus-dependent Thymus (tTreg) (DC+, IL-12+, IL-15), Induced in the thymus-independent periphery (pTreg) Polyclonal CD25, CD28, FasL, perforin, CTLA-4 Negative for NK1.1, Foxp3 CD25high, GITR, CTLA4, OX-40, TIGIT, CD39/CD73, IL-35, PD-1, GzmbSpecificity MarkersCytokine expression Target cell/ specializationIFN-, IDO, FGL2 Interaction with plasmacytoid DC to suppress CD4+ T cell activity Accumulated in the graft and spleen Contact-dependentFGL2-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation Contact-independent IDO-mediated suppressionFGL2, IFN- (not IL2) LPS-activated DC CD8 and CD4 T cells Mature and immature DC B cells Trogocytosis and CD8+ T cell (FasL) mediated killing CTLA-4 dependent downregulation of DC activation DC apoptosis through Fas:FasLIL-10, TGF-, FGL2 DC T cellsMechanismsDC inhibition by sequestration of CD80/CD86 T cell deprivation of IL-2 Inhibition of DC maturation Adenosine inhibition, impeding T cell effector and DC activity Anti-inflammatory Inductio.Ed by CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg.10,13,37 In addition to CD4+ Treg, an immunosuppressive subset of CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes found in the small intestine was found to express fgl2 mRNA.38 Furthermore, Li et al. recently demonstrated in a rat cardiac transplant model that tolerogenic CD8+CD45RClow Treg expressed high levels of fgl2 mRNA compared to na e CD8+ Treg.39 A list of these FGL2-expressing Treg and their properties is shown in Table 2. In an early report, we demonstrated that FGL2 directly inhibits T cell proliferation in response to various stimuli (alloantigen, ConA, and anti-CD3/ anti-CD28 mAbs) and promotes a Th2 response. Furthermore, FGL2 was found to inhibit the maturation of bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC), reducing their ability to stimulate T cells in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) co-cultures.40 In order to elucidate further the role of FGL2, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of fgl2 (fgl2-/-) and found that these mice have increased T cell, B cell, and DC reactivity compared to fgl2+/+ wild-type mice (Figure 2).13 Furthermore, Treg isolated from fgl2-/mice had impaired ability to suppress effector T cell proliferation. The fgl2-/- mice also develop autoimmune glomerulonephritis as they age, likely related to the state of immune activation.Figure 2. Immunoregulatory Function of FGL2. Mice deficient in FGL2 (fgl2-/-) have enhanced T cell, B cell, and DC function as shown in the figure. The fgl2-/- mice develop autoimmune glomerulonephritis as they age reflective of chronic immune activation. DC, dendritic cell; LPS, lipopolysaccharide.Rambam Maimonides Medical JournalJuly 2015 Volume 6 Issue 3 eTreg and FGL2 in Alloimmunity and AutoimmunityTable 2. FGL2-expressing Regulatory T Cells. Molecule TCR Co-receptor CD8 , MHC-I/II restricted CD8+CD45RClow , MHC-I restricted DNT cells CD4+Foxp3+, MHC-II restricted , MHC-II-restricted Absent CDCD8 CD8 Small subset express CD4 or CD8 Lin-cells in intestinal epithelium, cryptopatches Thymus (induced IEL from conventional T cells) Thymus-independent Self-antigen, foreign antigen, oligoclonal CD69, FasL, granzymes, CD122, B220, NK-Like receptors Negative for CD2, CD5, CD28, LFA-1, mostly Thy1-negative Low CD5 in intestine, TGF-3, LAG-3, FGL2 Homeostasis in intestine (food and microbes in lamina propria) More common in the small intestine Inhibitory NK receptors CD8 recruitment of LAT and LCK from the TCR CD45RClow, Foxp3, GITR, IL-10, and IL13 UnknownOriginThymus, peripheryThymusDevelopmentCD40-Ig treatmentThymus-dependent Thymus (tTreg) (DC+, IL-12+, IL-15), Induced in the thymus-independent periphery (pTreg) Polyclonal CD25, CD28, FasL, perforin, CTLA-4 Negative for NK1.1, Foxp3 CD25high, GITR, CTLA4, OX-40, TIGIT, CD39/CD73, IL-35, PD-1, GzmbSpecificity MarkersCytokine expression Target cell/ specializationIFN-, IDO, FGL2 Interaction with plasmacytoid DC to suppress CD4+ T cell activity Accumulated in the graft and spleen Contact-dependentFGL2-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation Contact-independent IDO-mediated suppressionFGL2, IFN- (not IL2) LPS-activated DC CD8 and CD4 T cells Mature and immature DC B cells Trogocytosis and CD8+ T cell (FasL) mediated killing CTLA-4 dependent downregulation of DC activation DC apoptosis through Fas:FasLIL-10, TGF-, FGL2 DC T cellsMechanismsDC inhibition by sequestration of CD80/CD86 T cell deprivation of IL-2 Inhibition of DC maturation Adenosine inhibition, impeding T cell effector and DC activity Anti-inflammatory Inductio.

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