Es and hemodynamic parameters in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. PLoS

Es and hemodynamic parameters in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. PLoS One. 9(6), e100261 (2014). Pfarr, N. et al. Hemodynamic and clinical onset in patients with hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension and BMPR2 mutations. Respir Res. 12, 99 (2011). Davies, R. J. Morrell, N. W. Molecular mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Morphogenetic protein type II receptor. Chest. 134, 1271?277 (2008).
www.nature.com/scientificreportsOPENreceived: 26 January 2016 Accepted: 15 September 2016 Published: 05 OctoberPreserved MS023 solubility implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia despite poor explicit performance: evidence from eye trackingPaul Roux1,2,3,4, Pauline Smith1, Christine Passerieux2,3,4 Franck RamusSchizophrenia has been characterized by an impaired mentalizing. It has been suggested that distinguishing implicit from explicit processes is crucial in social cognition, and only the latter might be affected in schizophrenia. Two other questions remain open: (1) Is schizophrenia characterized by an hypo- or hyper attribution of intentions? (2) Is it characterized by a deficit in the attribution of intention or of contingency? To test these three questions, spontaneous mentalizing was tested in 29 individuals with schizophrenia and 29 control subjects using the Frith-Happ?animations, while eye movements were recorded. Explicit mentalizing was measured from participants’ verbal descriptions and was contrasted with implicit mentalizing measured through eye tracking. As a group, patients made less accurate and less intentional descriptions of the goal-directed and theory of mind animations. No group differences were found in the attribution of contingency. Eye tracking results revealed that patients and controls showed a similar modulation of eye movements in response to the mental states displayed in the Frith-Happ?animations. To conclude, in this paradigm, participants with schizophrenia showed a dissociation between explicit and implicit mentalizing, with a decrease in the explicit attribution of intentions, whereas their eye movements suggested a preserved implicit perception of intentions. Schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in GW0742 chemical information several domains of social cognition, including Theory of Mind (ToM) or mentalizing1? and goal or intention attribution4?. Mentalizing deficits have a clear functional importance in schizophrenia, as they are one of the strongest predictors of functional outcome among the other social as well as non-social cognitive domains7. Overall, research on social cognition in schizophrenia leaves some questions open, including three that will be our main focus here: (1) Do individuals with schizophrenia show a hypoor a hyper-mentalizing deficit? (2) Is this deficit characterized by an impairment in the attribution of intention or contingency? (3) Is this deficit situated at an implicit and automatic or an explicit and reflexive level of processing? Hypomentalizing refers to being less able to perceive and infer goals and intentions. In contrast, hypermentalizing would involve over-attributing intentions, including to non-intentional stimuli. Hypermentalizing has been suggested by several authors by the existence of paranoid symptoms in schizophrenia, leading to an excessive attribution of malevolent intentions to others8,9. This hypothesis has received some experimental evidence at the behavioral10?3 and the neurophysiological levels14?6. Nevertheless, replications of this result are inconsistent. Several s.Es and hemodynamic parameters in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. PLoS One. 9(6), e100261 (2014). Pfarr, N. et al. Hemodynamic and clinical onset in patients with hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension and BMPR2 mutations. Respir Res. 12, 99 (2011). Davies, R. J. Morrell, N. W. Molecular mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Morphogenetic protein type II receptor. Chest. 134, 1271?277 (2008).
www.nature.com/scientificreportsOPENreceived: 26 January 2016 Accepted: 15 September 2016 Published: 05 OctoberPreserved implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia despite poor explicit performance: evidence from eye trackingPaul Roux1,2,3,4, Pauline Smith1, Christine Passerieux2,3,4 Franck RamusSchizophrenia has been characterized by an impaired mentalizing. It has been suggested that distinguishing implicit from explicit processes is crucial in social cognition, and only the latter might be affected in schizophrenia. Two other questions remain open: (1) Is schizophrenia characterized by an hypo- or hyper attribution of intentions? (2) Is it characterized by a deficit in the attribution of intention or of contingency? To test these three questions, spontaneous mentalizing was tested in 29 individuals with schizophrenia and 29 control subjects using the Frith-Happ?animations, while eye movements were recorded. Explicit mentalizing was measured from participants’ verbal descriptions and was contrasted with implicit mentalizing measured through eye tracking. As a group, patients made less accurate and less intentional descriptions of the goal-directed and theory of mind animations. No group differences were found in the attribution of contingency. Eye tracking results revealed that patients and controls showed a similar modulation of eye movements in response to the mental states displayed in the Frith-Happ?animations. To conclude, in this paradigm, participants with schizophrenia showed a dissociation between explicit and implicit mentalizing, with a decrease in the explicit attribution of intentions, whereas their eye movements suggested a preserved implicit perception of intentions. Schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in several domains of social cognition, including Theory of Mind (ToM) or mentalizing1? and goal or intention attribution4?. Mentalizing deficits have a clear functional importance in schizophrenia, as they are one of the strongest predictors of functional outcome among the other social as well as non-social cognitive domains7. Overall, research on social cognition in schizophrenia leaves some questions open, including three that will be our main focus here: (1) Do individuals with schizophrenia show a hypoor a hyper-mentalizing deficit? (2) Is this deficit characterized by an impairment in the attribution of intention or contingency? (3) Is this deficit situated at an implicit and automatic or an explicit and reflexive level of processing? Hypomentalizing refers to being less able to perceive and infer goals and intentions. In contrast, hypermentalizing would involve over-attributing intentions, including to non-intentional stimuli. Hypermentalizing has been suggested by several authors by the existence of paranoid symptoms in schizophrenia, leading to an excessive attribution of malevolent intentions to others8,9. This hypothesis has received some experimental evidence at the behavioral10?3 and the neurophysiological levels14?6. Nevertheless, replications of this result are inconsistent. Several s.

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