Rivation (ND) circumstances, in which TAG content and yield reached 0.34 g mg-1 dry weight and two.9 g L-1, respectively. Later, Liu et al.  compared lipid production overall performance by photoautotrophic C. zofingiensis beneath many circumstances of ND, high light (HL) plus the mixture of ND and HL (ND + HL). ND + HL enabled C. zofingiensis to make the highest levels of total lipids and TAG, followed by ND and HL. Nevertheless, as a result of compromised biomass production, TAG productivities accomplished below ND and ND + HL conditions have been reduce than that below HL situations. To promote TAG productivity, the authors employed a CLK Compound nitrogen limitation approach coupled having a semi-continuousZhang et al. Biotechnol Biofuels(2021) 14:Web page 6 ofculture technique. The impact of other nutrients, for instance phosphorus and sulfur, was also evaluated for C. zofingiensis: similar to ND, sulfur deprivation (SD) induced TAG accumulation but much less prominent; by contrast, phosphorus deprivation (PD) showed tiny impact on TAG synthesis . Interestingly, other algae, including Nannochloropsis and Phaeodactylum, are vulnerable to PD for TAG induction [74, 86, 87], highlighting the evolutionary divergence of these algae in sensing and responding to phosphorus adjustments. C. zofingiensis is in a position to develop in the presence of moderate salinity levels [18, 22, 88]. As shown in other green algae , C. zofingiensis was reported to synthesize and accumulate TAG upon salinity tension (SS) , pointing towards the prospective of employing this alga for lipid production under saline environment, as a result reducing freshwater footprint. In addition, the combination of HL and SS (HL + SS) was shown to induce much more TAG in C. zofingiensis and give rise to larger TAG yield and productivity than HL and SS alone did . In addition, it has been recently reported that lipid accumulation in C. zofingiensis could be stimulated by certain HDAC10 Formulation phytohormones, resulting in enhanced lipid yield and productivity . A summary of lipid production by C. zofingiensis beneath several situations is listed in Table 1. You’ll find a variety of evaluations about lipid productionby microalgae through the past decades; the lipid content and lipid productivity, based on microalgal species/ strains and culture circumstances, commonly variety from 20 to 60 of dry weight and 30 to 600 mg L-1 d-1, respectively [3, 935]. It may be not acceptable to conclude by direct comparison of lipid content material and productivity in between C. zofingiensis and also other algae, as the culture conditions are distinct. Nonetheless, the TAG content ( 48 of dry weight), yield ( 20.four g L-1) and productivity ( 1.four g L-1 day-1) achieved for C. zofingiensis are general comparable to or perhaps higher than these from other commonly studied and prospective lipid production algae, which include Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Nannochloropsis, and so on. [28, 94, 969]. The fatty acid composition of lipids can also be important, since it determines important properties of biodiesel, like cetane quantity, heat of combustion, oxidative stability, cloud point, lubricity . Similar to plant oils, C. zofingiensis lipids consist predominantly of fatty acids within the length of 168 carbons . The relative abundance of fatty acids in C. zofingiensis varies largely depending on the culture circumstances [13, 17, 18, 28, 29, 31, 62, 79]. Normally, saturated fatty acids offer oxidative stability, even though unsaturated fatty acids benefit low-temperature stability. It truly is believed that oleic acid (C18:19) can serveTabl.