Rea, the canopy cover percentage was calculated and named according to its dominant floristic composition. Finally, four VTs classes had been identified: VT1 can be a shrubby species (As ve), VT2 is usually a tallgrass species (Br to), VT3 is semi-shrub species (Sc or), and VT4 will be the combination of shrub and tallgrass species (As ve-Br to). Field strategies are a beneficial tool for accurate identification and classification of VTs, but these solutions face limitations, and as a result of personnel, logistical, and budgetary limitations, field measurement approaches cannot make repeated and simultaneous in situ observations from the heterogeneous landscapes . The escalating availability of satellite information has supplied totally free imagery with high spatial and spectral resolutions, such as Landsat 8, that are thought of essential tools for land cover mapping . However, the classification of VTs relying on a single-date Landsat image is challenging, in particular in our heterogeneousRemote Sens. 2021, 13,12 ofstudy location. This problem is particularly relevant to VTs, thus phenological information grow to be important within the land cover mapping on the VTs distribution and subsequently in their classification, whilst single-date image assessments might not accurately represent annual modifications and discriminate vegetation . 4.1. NDVI Temporal Profiles According to the NDVI temporal profile in Figure 5, maximum NDVI PF-05105679 References values could be observed in spring. In addition, the role of your VTs phenology need to be discussed. As shown in Figure 6, one of the most informative temporal window amongst the VTs classes was observed for the period of April via June. One of the most crucial months for VTs discrimination have been when minimal reflectance values were observed (winter and summer time seasons) and when the NDVI reflectance was similar among the VTs. Given that the predominant VTs within the study area are shrubs (As vr), semi-shrubs (Sc or), and grasses (Br to), shrub species, resulting from their greater canopy cover percentage, possess a larger NDVI worth than the grasses and semi-shrubs species inside the three years of 2018, 2019, and 2020. Additionally, because of the low precipitation inside the location in 2018 (170 mm), VT2 with dominant grass species (Br to) isn’t drought resistant and shows the lowest vegetative development price, major towards the lowest NDVI worth. Other VTs (As ve and Sc or) are extra resistant to drought due to shrubby and semi-shrub species dominance or compositional variation, and have maintained their canopy cover, as a result preserving a greater NDVI value than the VT2. The quantity of precipitation somewhat elevated in 2019 and 2020 (220 and 210 mm, respectively), which meant that the VT2 dominant grass species had much better vegetative growth than semi-shrubs and had a higher NDVI worth in early spring. Nevertheless, the high palatability of these grass species, as opposed to shrubby and semi-shrub species, favors intensive grazing, and also the canopy cover starts to decrease beginning from late spring onwards. Likewise, the GLPG-3221 In Vitro grazing provoked a decrease in NDVI values (Figure six). For that reason, VTs’ spectral behavior is diverse in the development period, and this can be probably the most critical issue for choosing the time window for identifying and separating shrubs and grasses. 4.2. Mapping VTs Landsat OLI-8 photos had been made use of over a period of three years from 2018 to 2020. The first step was to choose the optimal multi-temporal images for VTs classification. By analyzing the NDVI temporal profile and plant species’ spectral behavior, we identified the optimal combin.