Ks of low frequency, moderate intensity power training has the capacity
Ks of low frequency, moderate intensity power training has the capacity to reduce the global DNA methylation in peripheral mononuclear cells of elderly subjects [50]. Several studies point out that PA acts as a modulator of histone acetylation, particularly H3 and H4, in different tissues [15], promoting chromatin modification that can lead to selective transcription or inhibition of specific genes related to cancer [51], muscle wasting [52] or PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27488460 behavioral [53] diseases. During the last years, a substantial increase of data suggests that PA may affect the production of miRNAs [54]. In particular, among the over 100 miRNAs which have been found to be modulated in response to exercise, some are involved in specific cancers [55?8], metabolic [59] and cardiovascular diseases [60]. The most significant human studies investigating the relationship between epigenetic modification and PA are summarised in Table 1 and reveal the capacity of PA to preserve and/or recover the “positive” epigenetic markers that are known to be modified in important chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Readers interested in other environmental factors that may have the buy Foretinib potential to modulate epigenetic modifications (i.e. tobacco smoke, dietary components, PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28388412 and other exogenous factors) are referred to other thematic reviews [61]. Although the intensity of exercise in published studies are not always specifically measured (e.g. the percentage of maximum oxygen uptake), some studies provide useful information about the frequency and duration of specific exercise protocols able to prevent or treat the course of certain diseases through the preservation or the recovery of “positive” epigenetic markers.Cancer diseaseAberrant DNA methylation patterns have been extensively described as triggers for carcinogenesis [13]. Cancer is commonly associated with hypermethylation of tumour-suppressor genes. For example, 5?0 of the thousands of promoter CpG islands that never normally contain DNA methylation become abnormally methylated in various cancer genomes [6]. During the last decade, several studies have attempted to elucidate the effects of PA in relation to methylation of cancerspecific loci, either in term of prevention or treatment.Table 1 Main outcomes of human studies on physical activity, epigenetics and diseasesPA assessment PA questionnaire (for the past years, the past 5 years and over a lifetime) PA questionnaire (for the current year, the past 10 and 20 years) PA questionnaire (referent before cancer oneset) PA questionnaire (for the current year, the past 10 and 20 years) PA assessed over 4 days PA self-reported (occupational history) 6 months of 2.5hrs per week of moderate intensity treadmill exercise PA self-reported over 7 days and 12 months Buccal cells Leukocyte and breast Colorectal Leukocytes Rectum No significant between PA and CIMP tumors No significant correlation between PA and LINE-1 methylation No significant association between PA and CIMP tumors Significant association between PA and DNA methylation in a tumor suppressor gene (L3MBTL1) Significant correlation between PA and DNA methylation of genes associated with carcinogenesis process No significant correlation between PA and LINE-1 DNA methylation PA alter the expression of 986 genes and 23 miRNAs associated with cancer and cell communication in NK cells Vastus lateralis Vastus lateralis Significant hypometilation of PGC-1, TFAM, PPARD, PDK4 Sig.

Leave a Reply