Her is still emerging. In fact, even the concept of `transferring

Her is still emerging. In fact, even the concept of `transferring together’ can have a number of meanings, as discussed below and in a number of the other reviews in this issue. This review provides, to the best of our abilities, the current “best” values for the solution thermochemistry of several classes of proton-coupled redox cofactors. Many of these PCET species are either involved in, or have been used to I-CBP112 price understand, key chemical and biochemical reactions. These thermochemical data can be used, as illustrated below, to analyze the mechanisms of specific H+/e- transfer reactions using common `square schemes.’ Analogous thermochemical data are available for some biochemical small molecules, allowing us to illustrate that the same approach can be used to analyze biochemical transformations. We begin with a discussion of definitions and thermochemical background.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript2. Scope and DefinitionsThis review tabulates and analyzes the thermochemical properties of reagents that transfer electrons and protons. Our focus is on processes involving 1e- and 1H+, and connecting this proton/electron perspective with hydrogen atom transfers and X homolytic bond strengths. We do not deal extensively here with processes involving multiple electron and/or proton transfers and heterolytic bond I-CBP112MedChemExpress I-CBP112 strengths, such as hydride (2e-/1H+) transfers, although the same type of analysis can be applied. A recent and elegant example can be found in the work of DuBois et al. using of the thermochemistry of H-, H? H+ and e- transfers to develop new transition metal-hydride catalytic processes.5 These H+/e- transfer processes all fall under the general term `proton-coupled electron transfer’ or PCET. This term has come to encompass any redox process where the rate or energetics are affected by one or more protons, including processes in which protons and electrons transfer among one or more reactants, by concerted or stepwise mechanisms, and processes in which protons modulate ET processes even if they do not transfer.6 This very broad definition is not what Meyer and co-workers intended when they coined the term in 1981,7 and many current researchers in the field use `PCET’ to mean something more specific. However, examination of the large literature citing `PCET’ ?over 200 papers from 2006 to 20098 ?shows that the broad usage has taken hold. Therefore in our view, `PCET’ can no longer be used to refer to a single reaction class, and the mechanistic implications of this term have often been diluted. Thus, we support the broad use of PCET given above. We note that Meyer and Costentin have also recently emphasized this broad definition of PCET. 1,3 As `PCET’ has been used to describe many different redox reactions, researchers have coined new and more specific terms, which has led to some confusion in this area. The variety of nomenclature, while unfortunate, reflects the surge of interest in the field by workers from quite different disciplines, and the variety of PCET phenomena that have been investigated.Chem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Page2.1 Concerted Proton-Electron Transfer (CPET) vs. stepwise pathways As originally conceived,7 `PCET’ referred to reactions where a proton and electron are transferred in a single, concerted step. Since PCET has lost this mechanistic connotation, Sav nt and coworkers have proposed a new term, `concerted proton-electron tra.Her is still emerging. In fact, even the concept of `transferring together’ can have a number of meanings, as discussed below and in a number of the other reviews in this issue. This review provides, to the best of our abilities, the current “best” values for the solution thermochemistry of several classes of proton-coupled redox cofactors. Many of these PCET species are either involved in, or have been used to understand, key chemical and biochemical reactions. These thermochemical data can be used, as illustrated below, to analyze the mechanisms of specific H+/e- transfer reactions using common `square schemes.’ Analogous thermochemical data are available for some biochemical small molecules, allowing us to illustrate that the same approach can be used to analyze biochemical transformations. We begin with a discussion of definitions and thermochemical background.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript2. Scope and DefinitionsThis review tabulates and analyzes the thermochemical properties of reagents that transfer electrons and protons. Our focus is on processes involving 1e- and 1H+, and connecting this proton/electron perspective with hydrogen atom transfers and X homolytic bond strengths. We do not deal extensively here with processes involving multiple electron and/or proton transfers and heterolytic bond strengths, such as hydride (2e-/1H+) transfers, although the same type of analysis can be applied. A recent and elegant example can be found in the work of DuBois et al. using of the thermochemistry of H-, H? H+ and e- transfers to develop new transition metal-hydride catalytic processes.5 These H+/e- transfer processes all fall under the general term `proton-coupled electron transfer’ or PCET. This term has come to encompass any redox process where the rate or energetics are affected by one or more protons, including processes in which protons and electrons transfer among one or more reactants, by concerted or stepwise mechanisms, and processes in which protons modulate ET processes even if they do not transfer.6 This very broad definition is not what Meyer and co-workers intended when they coined the term in 1981,7 and many current researchers in the field use `PCET’ to mean something more specific. However, examination of the large literature citing `PCET’ ?over 200 papers from 2006 to 20098 ?shows that the broad usage has taken hold. Therefore in our view, `PCET’ can no longer be used to refer to a single reaction class, and the mechanistic implications of this term have often been diluted. Thus, we support the broad use of PCET given above. We note that Meyer and Costentin have also recently emphasized this broad definition of PCET. 1,3 As `PCET’ has been used to describe many different redox reactions, researchers have coined new and more specific terms, which has led to some confusion in this area. The variety of nomenclature, while unfortunate, reflects the surge of interest in the field by workers from quite different disciplines, and the variety of PCET phenomena that have been investigated.Chem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Page2.1 Concerted Proton-Electron Transfer (CPET) vs. stepwise pathways As originally conceived,7 `PCET’ referred to reactions where a proton and electron are transferred in a single, concerted step. Since PCET has lost this mechanistic connotation, Sav nt and coworkers have proposed a new term, `concerted proton-electron tra.

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