Rade and high grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas15. They identified RNA binding

Rade and high grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas15. They identified RNA binding (Z)-4-Hydroxytamoxifen mechanism of action protein NOVA-1 (NOVA1) to be a marker distinguishing astrocytoma with oligodendrogliomas and heat shock protein beta 1 (HSPB1) as a predictive marker for poor prognosis for GBM15. Using protein arrays, Jiang et al. studied the expression and phosphorylation status of 46 proteins GW610742 biological activity involved in signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation, cell survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cell invasion in lower grades of glioma16. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) group has recently carried out a large scale molecular profiling of diffuse gliomas using 1,122 samples. Some major pathways implicated include PI3K/mToR pathway along with Ras-Raf MEK-ERK, p53/apoptosis pathway and others. Similarly, they confirmed cohesin complex pathway, involved in cell division and telomere length regulation, to play a major role in gliomagenesis. Further, based on unsupervised clustering of protein profiles, TCGA analysis also revealed two macro clusters, one cluster (LGG cluster) with majorly lower grade (Gr II and Gr III) glioma samples while other cluster, GBM-like cluster, with mostly GBM samples. The LGG class showed increased activity of PKC, PTEN, BRAF, and phosphoP70S6K17. In the present study, we have analyzed protein expression changes in the microsomal fraction of clinical tissue samples with diffuse astrocytoma in comparison to control, using iTRAQ and high-resolution mass spectrometry, followed by extensive bioinformatics analysis to get further insights into molecular changes in these tumors and to generate a resource which could be useful for developing circulatory biomarkers for clinical applications such as post-treatment surveillance.Experimental proceduresSample collection and processing.All the samples were collected at the time of surgery with informed consent from patients and approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee, Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS), Hyderabad, India and all the experiments were performed in accordance with recommended guidelines and regulations. Tumor tissue specimens were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 until use. Multiple sections from the temporal neocortex were studied and the tumor grade was assigned on the basis of clinical evaluation and histopathology as per WHO guidelines. Out of forty-five astrocytoma specimens collected over the period of 2 years, nine of them were grouped as diffuse astrocytomas. Six age matched samples (20?0 years) of either sex were selected for present study. Brain tissue obtained from temporal lobe epilepsy surgeries were collected as experimental controls. A large amount of temporal cortical tissue needs to be removed in these surgeries to reach hippocampus which is usually the most likely seizure focus. The temporal cortex used as control did not show any histological abnormalities by light microscopy. Further, immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies directed against phosphorylated neurofilament and synaptophysin proteins did not reveal any abnormal neurons in the cortex. These control subjects were in the 20?0 year old age group.Tissues from tumor patients (n = 6; 4 males and 2 females) or control subjects (n = 3; 2 males and 1 female) were pooled separately and microsomal fraction was prepared according to the procedure of Cox et al.18 and described by us earlier19 for microsomal protein enrichment. The procedure yields a preparation, which consists of memb.Rade and high grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas15. They identified RNA binding protein NOVA-1 (NOVA1) to be a marker distinguishing astrocytoma with oligodendrogliomas and heat shock protein beta 1 (HSPB1) as a predictive marker for poor prognosis for GBM15. Using protein arrays, Jiang et al. studied the expression and phosphorylation status of 46 proteins involved in signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation, cell survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cell invasion in lower grades of glioma16. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) group has recently carried out a large scale molecular profiling of diffuse gliomas using 1,122 samples. Some major pathways implicated include PI3K/mToR pathway along with Ras-Raf MEK-ERK, p53/apoptosis pathway and others. Similarly, they confirmed cohesin complex pathway, involved in cell division and telomere length regulation, to play a major role in gliomagenesis. Further, based on unsupervised clustering of protein profiles, TCGA analysis also revealed two macro clusters, one cluster (LGG cluster) with majorly lower grade (Gr II and Gr III) glioma samples while other cluster, GBM-like cluster, with mostly GBM samples. The LGG class showed increased activity of PKC, PTEN, BRAF, and phosphoP70S6K17. In the present study, we have analyzed protein expression changes in the microsomal fraction of clinical tissue samples with diffuse astrocytoma in comparison to control, using iTRAQ and high-resolution mass spectrometry, followed by extensive bioinformatics analysis to get further insights into molecular changes in these tumors and to generate a resource which could be useful for developing circulatory biomarkers for clinical applications such as post-treatment surveillance.Experimental proceduresSample collection and processing.All the samples were collected at the time of surgery with informed consent from patients and approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee, Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS), Hyderabad, India and all the experiments were performed in accordance with recommended guidelines and regulations. Tumor tissue specimens were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 until use. Multiple sections from the temporal neocortex were studied and the tumor grade was assigned on the basis of clinical evaluation and histopathology as per WHO guidelines. Out of forty-five astrocytoma specimens collected over the period of 2 years, nine of them were grouped as diffuse astrocytomas. Six age matched samples (20?0 years) of either sex were selected for present study. Brain tissue obtained from temporal lobe epilepsy surgeries were collected as experimental controls. A large amount of temporal cortical tissue needs to be removed in these surgeries to reach hippocampus which is usually the most likely seizure focus. The temporal cortex used as control did not show any histological abnormalities by light microscopy. Further, immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies directed against phosphorylated neurofilament and synaptophysin proteins did not reveal any abnormal neurons in the cortex. These control subjects were in the 20?0 year old age group.Tissues from tumor patients (n = 6; 4 males and 2 females) or control subjects (n = 3; 2 males and 1 female) were pooled separately and microsomal fraction was prepared according to the procedure of Cox et al.18 and described by us earlier19 for microsomal protein enrichment. The procedure yields a preparation, which consists of memb.

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