H mechanisms linking excess adiposity to elevated risk of GDM are

H mechanisms linking excess adiposity to elevated risk of GDM are not completely understood. Adipose tissue is not only involved in energy storage but also functions as an active endocrine organ [4]. Recent evidence points to a crucial role of specific hormones and cytokines (i.e., adipokines) secreted by the adipose tissue. A major breakthrough in understanding the link between adiposity and glucose intolerance has come from the demonstration of crosstalk between adipose tissue and other insulin target tissues such as skeletal muscles and the liver [5]. Such crosstalk is mediated by a number of molecules that are secreted by adipocytes [4]. Among those identified to date are adiponectin, leptin, resistin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), etc. In concert, these adipokines are believed to adapt metabolic fluxes to the amount of stored energy. Dysregulation of this network is a critical factor in the deterioration of insulin sensitivity [4, 6]. Despite the promising role of these adipokines in glucose homeostasis, their roles in the development of GDM remain to be elucidated. Although there have been a number of human studies on adipokines and GDM during the past decades, inferences have been hindered due to significant heterogeneities in these studies concerning design, population characteristics, assay methods, timing of blood sample collection, and definition/diagnosis of GDM. Moreover, the majority of previous studies had a small sample size that may lead to false positive or negative findings. We aimed to systematically review the currentMetabolism. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 June 01.Bao et al.Pageliterature and quantitatively synthesize prospective data regarding adipokines and GDM risk, and to identify important data gaps.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript2. MATERIALS AND METHODSWhen conducting the study, we adhered to the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines [7]. 2.1 Literature search and study selection We conducted a comprehensive Procyanidin B1 chemical information electronic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases for literature on adipokines and GDM through October 21, 2014. To maximize the coverage in our literature search, we used a combination of free text (e.g., gestational diabetes) and subheadings from MeSH (e.g., “Diabetes, Gestational”[Mesh]) or EMTREE terms (e.g., `pregnancy diabetes mellitus’/exp). In addition to using the generic term for adipokines, we also specifically named each key adipokine (e.g., adiponectin, leptin, resistin, etc.) when conducting the literature search. Detailed search terms are listed in the Supplementary Materials. We restricted the literature search to English language. All reference lists from the main articles and relevant ShikoninMedChemExpress Isoarnebin 4 reviews were hand searched to identify additional studies. Figure 1 summarizes the process of literature search and study selection. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they had a prospective study design (i.e., blood samples for adipokines measurement were collected before the diagnosis of GDM, typically before 24 weeks of gestational age), and they compared adipokine levels measured in pregnant women who later developed GDM with women with normoglycemic pregnancies. We excluded the following types of articles: review articles or editorials, non-human studies (i.e., cell culture or animal studies), studies that did not include GDM as the primary concern, and studies that did not.H mechanisms linking excess adiposity to elevated risk of GDM are not completely understood. Adipose tissue is not only involved in energy storage but also functions as an active endocrine organ [4]. Recent evidence points to a crucial role of specific hormones and cytokines (i.e., adipokines) secreted by the adipose tissue. A major breakthrough in understanding the link between adiposity and glucose intolerance has come from the demonstration of crosstalk between adipose tissue and other insulin target tissues such as skeletal muscles and the liver [5]. Such crosstalk is mediated by a number of molecules that are secreted by adipocytes [4]. Among those identified to date are adiponectin, leptin, resistin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), etc. In concert, these adipokines are believed to adapt metabolic fluxes to the amount of stored energy. Dysregulation of this network is a critical factor in the deterioration of insulin sensitivity [4, 6]. Despite the promising role of these adipokines in glucose homeostasis, their roles in the development of GDM remain to be elucidated. Although there have been a number of human studies on adipokines and GDM during the past decades, inferences have been hindered due to significant heterogeneities in these studies concerning design, population characteristics, assay methods, timing of blood sample collection, and definition/diagnosis of GDM. Moreover, the majority of previous studies had a small sample size that may lead to false positive or negative findings. We aimed to systematically review the currentMetabolism. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 June 01.Bao et al.Pageliterature and quantitatively synthesize prospective data regarding adipokines and GDM risk, and to identify important data gaps.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript2. MATERIALS AND METHODSWhen conducting the study, we adhered to the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines [7]. 2.1 Literature search and study selection We conducted a comprehensive electronic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases for literature on adipokines and GDM through October 21, 2014. To maximize the coverage in our literature search, we used a combination of free text (e.g., gestational diabetes) and subheadings from MeSH (e.g., “Diabetes, Gestational”[Mesh]) or EMTREE terms (e.g., `pregnancy diabetes mellitus’/exp). In addition to using the generic term for adipokines, we also specifically named each key adipokine (e.g., adiponectin, leptin, resistin, etc.) when conducting the literature search. Detailed search terms are listed in the Supplementary Materials. We restricted the literature search to English language. All reference lists from the main articles and relevant reviews were hand searched to identify additional studies. Figure 1 summarizes the process of literature search and study selection. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they had a prospective study design (i.e., blood samples for adipokines measurement were collected before the diagnosis of GDM, typically before 24 weeks of gestational age), and they compared adipokine levels measured in pregnant women who later developed GDM with women with normoglycemic pregnancies. We excluded the following types of articles: review articles or editorials, non-human studies (i.e., cell culture or animal studies), studies that did not include GDM as the primary concern, and studies that did not.

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