Ocidins, which possess both overlapping and distinct immune evasion functions, it

Ocidins, which possess both overlapping and distinct immune evasion functions, it is perhaps not surprising that such low efficacy was witnessed. In an additional study of children with S. aureus infection, it was found that those with invasive disease generated a high-titer antibody response to LukAB/HG. The antibodies generated have significant neutralizing capabilities in vitro (330). However, like PVL, whether this antibody response to LukAB/HG alone is capable of conferring protection against infection with S. aureus remains to be determined. In this study, the titers of LukAB/HG antibody were higher than those of any other leucocidin tested, implying that it may be a dominant antigen seen during infection (330). When injected into the vitreous of the eyes of rabbits, PVL and gamma-hemolysin are both capable of inducing endophthalmitis (225, 226, 331, 332). Recently, Laventie et al. demonstrated that the INK1117 molecular weight administration of LukS-PV and LukF-PV monovalent and divalent heavy-chain-only diabodies are capable of reducing the inflammatory outcomes associated with PVL administration to the rabbit eye (332). Additionally, they demonstrated that one of these neutralizing diabodies, which was originally designed to target only PVL, could also bind to and neutralize HlgCB of gammahemolysin (332). Thus, not only are anti-PVL antibodies capable of reducing PVL-induced inflammation in in vivo rabbit models, it is also possible to generate antibody molecules that neutralize more than one leucocidin pair. Work by Karauzum and colleagues also demonstrated that the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies after immunization with PVL can have dramatic effects on pathogenic outcomes using a lethal murine systemic infection model (328). It is likely that antibodies with cross-neutralizing capabilities such as these will prove far more efficacious, highlighting promise toward the development of antitoxin molecules that may be able to target multiple toxins at the same time. By using this same ocular intoxication model, a series of small molecules with broad therapeutic applications known as calixarenes, or SCns (p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes), were also tested for their ability to neutralize the activities of both PVL and HlgAB (331, 333). In the presence of the small molecules, the inflammatory pathology associated with toxin administration to rabbit eyes was significantly reduced (331). It has been proposed that this neutralizing capacity of the calixarenes in rabbit endophthalmitis models stems from the ability of the inhibitors to bind LukS subunits with high affinity, thereby preventing cell surface recognition and toxin-mediated killing. The implications of leucocidin-specific calixarenes for use in the treatment of other S. aureus infectious conditions have yet to be examined. The identification of the cellular receptors required for cell surface recognition by LukAB/HG, PVL, and LukED has the potential to further the development of high-affinity leucocidin inhibitors. There is LLY-507 supplement evidence for likely success in this endeavor, in that clinically approved CCR5 receptor antagonists, such as the HIV drug maraviroc, block the cytolytic activity of LukED on CCR5-expressing cells (227, 245). Additionally, the use of antibodies and/or natural ligands as competitors for toxin binding for each of the identified toxin receptors, including CCR5 (LukE), CXCR1/CXCR2 (LukE), C5aR/C5L2 (LukS-PV), and CD11b(LukAB/HG), indicates that blocking of the initial interact.Ocidins, which possess both overlapping and distinct immune evasion functions, it is perhaps not surprising that such low efficacy was witnessed. In an additional study of children with S. aureus infection, it was found that those with invasive disease generated a high-titer antibody response to LukAB/HG. The antibodies generated have significant neutralizing capabilities in vitro (330). However, like PVL, whether this antibody response to LukAB/HG alone is capable of conferring protection against infection with S. aureus remains to be determined. In this study, the titers of LukAB/HG antibody were higher than those of any other leucocidin tested, implying that it may be a dominant antigen seen during infection (330). When injected into the vitreous of the eyes of rabbits, PVL and gamma-hemolysin are both capable of inducing endophthalmitis (225, 226, 331, 332). Recently, Laventie et al. demonstrated that the administration of LukS-PV and LukF-PV monovalent and divalent heavy-chain-only diabodies are capable of reducing the inflammatory outcomes associated with PVL administration to the rabbit eye (332). Additionally, they demonstrated that one of these neutralizing diabodies, which was originally designed to target only PVL, could also bind to and neutralize HlgCB of gammahemolysin (332). Thus, not only are anti-PVL antibodies capable of reducing PVL-induced inflammation in in vivo rabbit models, it is also possible to generate antibody molecules that neutralize more than one leucocidin pair. Work by Karauzum and colleagues also demonstrated that the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies after immunization with PVL can have dramatic effects on pathogenic outcomes using a lethal murine systemic infection model (328). It is likely that antibodies with cross-neutralizing capabilities such as these will prove far more efficacious, highlighting promise toward the development of antitoxin molecules that may be able to target multiple toxins at the same time. By using this same ocular intoxication model, a series of small molecules with broad therapeutic applications known as calixarenes, or SCns (p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes), were also tested for their ability to neutralize the activities of both PVL and HlgAB (331, 333). In the presence of the small molecules, the inflammatory pathology associated with toxin administration to rabbit eyes was significantly reduced (331). It has been proposed that this neutralizing capacity of the calixarenes in rabbit endophthalmitis models stems from the ability of the inhibitors to bind LukS subunits with high affinity, thereby preventing cell surface recognition and toxin-mediated killing. The implications of leucocidin-specific calixarenes for use in the treatment of other S. aureus infectious conditions have yet to be examined. The identification of the cellular receptors required for cell surface recognition by LukAB/HG, PVL, and LukED has the potential to further the development of high-affinity leucocidin inhibitors. There is evidence for likely success in this endeavor, in that clinically approved CCR5 receptor antagonists, such as the HIV drug maraviroc, block the cytolytic activity of LukED on CCR5-expressing cells (227, 245). Additionally, the use of antibodies and/or natural ligands as competitors for toxin binding for each of the identified toxin receptors, including CCR5 (LukE), CXCR1/CXCR2 (LukE), C5aR/C5L2 (LukS-PV), and CD11b(LukAB/HG), indicates that blocking of the initial interact.

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