2S] cluster is the immediate source of the biotin sulfur atom.

2S] Olumacostat glasaretil chemical information cluster is the immediate source of the biotin sulfur atom. This belief is supported by experiments in which each of the sulfurcontaining small molecules of the defined in vitro reaction mixture was labeled with 35S and incorporation of the isotope into biotin was measured (see ref. (63) and references Pamapimod dose therein). No radioactive biotin was obtained. Isotopically labeled biotin was obtained only when BioB was labeled with 35S in vivo (63) or with 34S by reconstitution of the [Fe-S] clusters in vitro (64). More recent reports have shown that BioB reconstituted with Se in place of S gave selenobiotin derived from the (2Fe-2Se) cluster (65). Spectroscopic studies indicate that the [2Fe-2S] cluster disappears concomitantly with sulfur insertion (66, 67) and more recently evidence for that reduction of the [2Fe-2S] cluster accompanies formation of 9mercaptodethiobiotin (62) consistent with a mechanism in which the [2Fe-2S] cluster simultaneously provides and oxidizes sulfide during carbon-sulfur bond formation. For many years one of the few points of agreement in the literature was the finding that BioB itself is the sulfur source impinges, that the BioB reaction is not catalytic in vitro (57, 59, 68). Numerous and diverse justifications were put forth for the observed lack of catalysis (69?1), but no general agreement emerged. The favored and most provocative explanation for the lack of catalysis was that given above, the [2Fe-2S] cluster of the protein donates the biotin sulfur atom and this donation inactivates BioB. In this view BioB would be a reactant or substrate rather than an enzyme and, in the absence of repair of the [2Fe-2S] center, the protein would be sacrificed. The scenario of protein sacrifice was not completely unreasonable because there is no need for E. coli biotin synthase to be an efficient catalyst because E. coli (like most other organisms) requires only minuscule quantities of biotin for growth. E. coli can grow with only 100?00 molecules of biotin per cell (10, 72) and thus sacrifice of a few hundred molecules of a medium sized protein would not be a major drain on cellular resources. However, it was shown that Choi-Rhee and Cronan (73) demonstrated that E. coli BioB is catalytic in vivo. Such in vivo measurements are difficult since the endogenous expression level of biotin synthase is very low and because biotin may be split between pools of free and protein bound cofactor. The first issue was overcome by overexpressing hexahistidine-tagged biotin synthase under control of an arabinose-inducible promoter. The second issue was overcome by massively overexpressing, under control of an IPTG-inducible T7 promoter, biotin ligase (BirA) and a truncated, hexahistidine-tagged form of the acetyl CoA carboxylase biotinyl domain that can accept biotin but does not form an active enzyme complex. These investigators then used a combination of antipentahistidine antibodies, [35S]methionine labeling, and streptavidin to quantify the levels of each protein and of total biotinylated protein separated by denaturing and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. The use of the two gel systems allowed the turnover number of BioB is be calculated in an unusually straightforward manner. The ratio of biotinylated domain to BioB monomer gives 20?0 equivalents of biotin produced per initial biotin synthase monomer (73). Very recently Jarrett and coworkers reported that in their in vitro assay system they observed that BioB is catalytic, 11 BS d.2S] cluster is the immediate source of the biotin sulfur atom. This belief is supported by experiments in which each of the sulfurcontaining small molecules of the defined in vitro reaction mixture was labeled with 35S and incorporation of the isotope into biotin was measured (see ref. (63) and references therein). No radioactive biotin was obtained. Isotopically labeled biotin was obtained only when BioB was labeled with 35S in vivo (63) or with 34S by reconstitution of the [Fe-S] clusters in vitro (64). More recent reports have shown that BioB reconstituted with Se in place of S gave selenobiotin derived from the (2Fe-2Se) cluster (65). Spectroscopic studies indicate that the [2Fe-2S] cluster disappears concomitantly with sulfur insertion (66, 67) and more recently evidence for that reduction of the [2Fe-2S] cluster accompanies formation of 9mercaptodethiobiotin (62) consistent with a mechanism in which the [2Fe-2S] cluster simultaneously provides and oxidizes sulfide during carbon-sulfur bond formation. For many years one of the few points of agreement in the literature was the finding that BioB itself is the sulfur source impinges, that the BioB reaction is not catalytic in vitro (57, 59, 68). Numerous and diverse justifications were put forth for the observed lack of catalysis (69?1), but no general agreement emerged. The favored and most provocative explanation for the lack of catalysis was that given above, the [2Fe-2S] cluster of the protein donates the biotin sulfur atom and this donation inactivates BioB. In this view BioB would be a reactant or substrate rather than an enzyme and, in the absence of repair of the [2Fe-2S] center, the protein would be sacrificed. The scenario of protein sacrifice was not completely unreasonable because there is no need for E. coli biotin synthase to be an efficient catalyst because E. coli (like most other organisms) requires only minuscule quantities of biotin for growth. E. coli can grow with only 100?00 molecules of biotin per cell (10, 72) and thus sacrifice of a few hundred molecules of a medium sized protein would not be a major drain on cellular resources. However, it was shown that Choi-Rhee and Cronan (73) demonstrated that E. coli BioB is catalytic in vivo. Such in vivo measurements are difficult since the endogenous expression level of biotin synthase is very low and because biotin may be split between pools of free and protein bound cofactor. The first issue was overcome by overexpressing hexahistidine-tagged biotin synthase under control of an arabinose-inducible promoter. The second issue was overcome by massively overexpressing, under control of an IPTG-inducible T7 promoter, biotin ligase (BirA) and a truncated, hexahistidine-tagged form of the acetyl CoA carboxylase biotinyl domain that can accept biotin but does not form an active enzyme complex. These investigators then used a combination of antipentahistidine antibodies, [35S]methionine labeling, and streptavidin to quantify the levels of each protein and of total biotinylated protein separated by denaturing and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. The use of the two gel systems allowed the turnover number of BioB is be calculated in an unusually straightforward manner. The ratio of biotinylated domain to BioB monomer gives 20?0 equivalents of biotin produced per initial biotin synthase monomer (73). Very recently Jarrett and coworkers reported that in their in vitro assay system they observed that BioB is catalytic, 11 BS d.

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