Thod uses the images from off-line signatures to compute their contour.

Thod uses the images from off-line signatures to compute their contour. As DB3 and DB4 are composed of dynamic signatures, we have converted them into images by interpolating the spatial sequences and fixing the resolution at 600 dpi in all datasets. The envelope of each individual signature was smoothed through a morphological operation which was performed 3 times over each signature and also using 9 components as square structuring elements. Finally, to obtain an average signature envelope for each database, 320 equidistant landmarks were selected in this particular implementation. The average envelopes for the Western databases are shown at Fig 2. We have highlighted the ellipses of 4 equidistant landmarks for each average envelope, according to the formula (1). We can see their overall elliptical shape in all cases, which is characteristic of signatures with large text, written in a single line and with a flourish. Also we could observe how the right part of the signature is PX-478 web usually smaller than the left part. This is also a characteristic of Western signatures, where the initial part appears slightly bigger on average. Additionally, we can observe that the average envelope for DB1 is more rounded than the others, thus showing the stronger influence of more elaborate flourishes in this dataset. The shape of the signatures can be ascendant, descendent or longitudinal. This particular ABT-737 site feature is measured through the skew angle, which indicates the inclination of the shape of theFig 2. Averaged signature envelope with the cloud point around 4 landmarks out of 320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123254.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123254 April 10,8 /Modeling the Lexical Morphology of Western Handwritten SignaturesFig 3. Skew PDF modeled by a GEV. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123254.gsignature. The angle of the skew is measured in degrees and the third image in Fig 1 illustrates how it is defined. The skew distribution was calculated for the four databases. From the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, the skew distribution is similar for the all considered datasets, and is modeled in Fig 3. This figure indicates that the normal skew value is near to zero degrees. Also it is shown that the skew in the signatures is more often ascendant than descendent.Text lines morphologyWestern signatures are generally composed of text, which is sometimes difficult to read because of the signing speed, plus a flourish. The text in the Western signature defines the personal identity of the signer which reflects the name, the family name or just a combination of initial letters. The flourish or rubric in the occidental signatures is defined by a kind of doodle written much faster and without much attention. It sometimes contains personal information as an almost illegible initial. Certainly, this feature is strongly dependent on the personal name of the signer. However, the analyses of this feature highlight some findings about how people decide to show their signature in different geographical areas. We could observe that in certain areas people write their full name and surname thus using a large number of letters and words in their signatures. Also we can observe that other regions prefer to use fewer letters to identify their personal signature. All of these peculiarities are analyzed in this section. The signatures with text and flourish are the most common and are estimated to comprise 86.6 of the total of Western signatures in the DB1; 50.0 in the DB2.Thod uses the images from off-line signatures to compute their contour. As DB3 and DB4 are composed of dynamic signatures, we have converted them into images by interpolating the spatial sequences and fixing the resolution at 600 dpi in all datasets. The envelope of each individual signature was smoothed through a morphological operation which was performed 3 times over each signature and also using 9 components as square structuring elements. Finally, to obtain an average signature envelope for each database, 320 equidistant landmarks were selected in this particular implementation. The average envelopes for the Western databases are shown at Fig 2. We have highlighted the ellipses of 4 equidistant landmarks for each average envelope, according to the formula (1). We can see their overall elliptical shape in all cases, which is characteristic of signatures with large text, written in a single line and with a flourish. Also we could observe how the right part of the signature is usually smaller than the left part. This is also a characteristic of Western signatures, where the initial part appears slightly bigger on average. Additionally, we can observe that the average envelope for DB1 is more rounded than the others, thus showing the stronger influence of more elaborate flourishes in this dataset. The shape of the signatures can be ascendant, descendent or longitudinal. This particular feature is measured through the skew angle, which indicates the inclination of the shape of theFig 2. Averaged signature envelope with the cloud point around 4 landmarks out of 320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123254.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123254 April 10,8 /Modeling the Lexical Morphology of Western Handwritten SignaturesFig 3. Skew PDF modeled by a GEV. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123254.gsignature. The angle of the skew is measured in degrees and the third image in Fig 1 illustrates how it is defined. The skew distribution was calculated for the four databases. From the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, the skew distribution is similar for the all considered datasets, and is modeled in Fig 3. This figure indicates that the normal skew value is near to zero degrees. Also it is shown that the skew in the signatures is more often ascendant than descendent.Text lines morphologyWestern signatures are generally composed of text, which is sometimes difficult to read because of the signing speed, plus a flourish. The text in the Western signature defines the personal identity of the signer which reflects the name, the family name or just a combination of initial letters. The flourish or rubric in the occidental signatures is defined by a kind of doodle written much faster and without much attention. It sometimes contains personal information as an almost illegible initial. Certainly, this feature is strongly dependent on the personal name of the signer. However, the analyses of this feature highlight some findings about how people decide to show their signature in different geographical areas. We could observe that in certain areas people write their full name and surname thus using a large number of letters and words in their signatures. Also we can observe that other regions prefer to use fewer letters to identify their personal signature. All of these peculiarities are analyzed in this section. The signatures with text and flourish are the most common and are estimated to comprise 86.6 of the total of Western signatures in the DB1; 50.0 in the DB2.

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