Ndroadherin, as well as proteins that connect the cartilage network like

Ndroadherin, as well as proteins that connect the cartilage network like COMP, prolinerich-protein, leucine-rich-protein or matrilins (matrilin-1, -2, -3, -4) are missing. Moreover, the interaction of ECM proteins under tensile strain and the influence of different loading protocols on chondrocytes in an inflammatory environment remain to be investigated.Extracellular Matrix Supporting and Degrading FactorsFactors that Promote Matrix Synthesis. Insulin like ICG-001 web growth factors (IGFs) and the transforming growth factor (TGF-) promote anabolic activities in chondrocytes and stimulate the gene expression of collagen II and aggrecan [62?4]. Furthermore, these factors regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation [65]. Marques et al. (2008) showed that 7 CTS for 4 h at 0.33 Hz elevated the expression of IGF-1 and IGF-2. The mRNA expression of TGF1 was increased by several loading protocols ranging from strains of 5?2 , from 12?8 h and at frequencies of 0.05 and 0.5 Hz [24,37,48,57] (Table 5). The increased expression of IGF and TGF-1 due to CTS might in turn support the synthesis of collagen II and aggrecan after these loading protocols. Degradation and Loss of Matrix Macromolecules. The degradation of the ECM of cartilage is accomplished by proteases. Collagenases, like metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 are able to cleave the collagen network [66], whereas aggrecanases, like ADAMTS-4 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a ABT-737 manufacturer thrombospondin motif 4), and ADAMTS-5 degrade the proteoglycan aggrecan [67]. The hyaluronidases HYAL1 and HYAL2 can cleave hyaluronan, which in turn will destabilize the supramolecular structures and weaken the cartilage [68,69]. These degrading enzymes are regulated inter alia by inflammatory mediators, like IL-1 and TNF-, which are closely related to matrix breakdown and which also play a significant role in degenerative disease, like osteoarthritis [70?3].PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816 March 30,14 /Cyclic Tensile Strain and Chondrocyte MetabolismTable 5. Effects of CTS on TGF-1. Loading duration 3h 6h 12 h Strain magnitude 10 12 7 10 12 24 h 5 7 10 12 12 48 h 7 12 Frequency 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz TGF-1 ” ” “aReference [37] [24] [57] [37] [24,57] [48] [57] [37] [57] [24] [57] [57]” ” ” “Effects of CTS on TGF-1 relative to unloaded controls, sorted by loading duration mRNA levels of loaded cells were unchanged relative to unloaded cells ” mRNA levels of loaded cells were increased relative to unloaded cellsaTGF- activity determined with a bioassaydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816.tProteases. Low frequencies of 0.05 Hz did not induce catabolic reactions through proteases in chondrocytes [27,53]. However, several studies showed that both the aggrecan- and collagen-degrading proteases cathepsin B [38], MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-13 were upregulated at various protocols with a frequency of 0.5 Hz, strain magnitudes between 7 and 23 , and loading durations between 3 and 48 h [26,34,37,38,46] (Table 6). Here, MMP-13 was already up-regulated after 3 h of CTS and MMP-1 as recently as after 12 h of CTS. The aggrecanases ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 were still less sensitive to CTS and only up-regulated in one case [46]. It has been shown that in response to 17 CTS, hyaluronan was slightly depolymerized in the supernatant which was further enhanced by increasing frequencies [74]. A reason for this might be that simi.Ndroadherin, as well as proteins that connect the cartilage network like COMP, prolinerich-protein, leucine-rich-protein or matrilins (matrilin-1, -2, -3, -4) are missing. Moreover, the interaction of ECM proteins under tensile strain and the influence of different loading protocols on chondrocytes in an inflammatory environment remain to be investigated.Extracellular Matrix Supporting and Degrading FactorsFactors that Promote Matrix Synthesis. Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) and the transforming growth factor (TGF-) promote anabolic activities in chondrocytes and stimulate the gene expression of collagen II and aggrecan [62?4]. Furthermore, these factors regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation [65]. Marques et al. (2008) showed that 7 CTS for 4 h at 0.33 Hz elevated the expression of IGF-1 and IGF-2. The mRNA expression of TGF1 was increased by several loading protocols ranging from strains of 5?2 , from 12?8 h and at frequencies of 0.05 and 0.5 Hz [24,37,48,57] (Table 5). The increased expression of IGF and TGF-1 due to CTS might in turn support the synthesis of collagen II and aggrecan after these loading protocols. Degradation and Loss of Matrix Macromolecules. The degradation of the ECM of cartilage is accomplished by proteases. Collagenases, like metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 are able to cleave the collagen network [66], whereas aggrecanases, like ADAMTS-4 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin motif 4), and ADAMTS-5 degrade the proteoglycan aggrecan [67]. The hyaluronidases HYAL1 and HYAL2 can cleave hyaluronan, which in turn will destabilize the supramolecular structures and weaken the cartilage [68,69]. These degrading enzymes are regulated inter alia by inflammatory mediators, like IL-1 and TNF-, which are closely related to matrix breakdown and which also play a significant role in degenerative disease, like osteoarthritis [70?3].PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816 March 30,14 /Cyclic Tensile Strain and Chondrocyte MetabolismTable 5. Effects of CTS on TGF-1. Loading duration 3h 6h 12 h Strain magnitude 10 12 7 10 12 24 h 5 7 10 12 12 48 h 7 12 Frequency 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz TGF-1 ” ” “aReference [37] [24] [57] [37] [24,57] [48] [57] [37] [57] [24] [57] [57]” ” ” “Effects of CTS on TGF-1 relative to unloaded controls, sorted by loading duration mRNA levels of loaded cells were unchanged relative to unloaded cells ” mRNA levels of loaded cells were increased relative to unloaded cellsaTGF- activity determined with a bioassaydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816.tProteases. Low frequencies of 0.05 Hz did not induce catabolic reactions through proteases in chondrocytes [27,53]. However, several studies showed that both the aggrecan- and collagen-degrading proteases cathepsin B [38], MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-13 were upregulated at various protocols with a frequency of 0.5 Hz, strain magnitudes between 7 and 23 , and loading durations between 3 and 48 h [26,34,37,38,46] (Table 6). Here, MMP-13 was already up-regulated after 3 h of CTS and MMP-1 as recently as after 12 h of CTS. The aggrecanases ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 were still less sensitive to CTS and only up-regulated in one case [46]. It has been shown that in response to 17 CTS, hyaluronan was slightly depolymerized in the supernatant which was further enhanced by increasing frequencies [74]. A reason for this might be that simi.

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