Having had an episode of URTI in the last month increased

Having had an episode of URTI in the last month increased the odds of colonization with a low-invasive serotypes. Carriage of low-(R)-K-13675 chemical information invasiveness serotypes also varied over time, with a lower prevalence in the period from February to June (Table 2). Being white was associated with a lower odds of colonization with a low invasiveness serotype compared with mixed race children. However, these differences in effect sizes for the high and low invasiveness serotypes were not statistically significant.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptVaccine. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 February 03.Menezes et al.PageSerotype Distribution and Antibiotic susceptibilityAuthor Manuscript Author ManuscriptGenotypingTable 3 shows the distribution of serotypes recovered throughout the period of the study. The most prevalent serotypes were 6A/B (25.4 ), 19F (10.1 ) and, 14 (9.0 ). The serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13 accounted for 52.2 and 55.5 , respectively. The most frequent non-vaccine serotypes were 16F (4.8 ), 15B/C (4.5 ), 6C/D (3.5 ), 34 (3 ) and not typeable (7.3 ); 15.3 (61/398) of the isolates of S. pneumoniae did not have the capsular type determined by multiplex-PCR. We did not find any fluctuation in the distribution of serotypes during the study period. Overall, 38.4 (153/398) of the pneumococci were non-susceptible to penicillin, with MICs ranging from 0.12 to 8.0 /ml. The percentage of capsular types included in the PCV10 vaccine among penicillin non-susceptible accounted for 73.2 (112/153) as follows: 6A/B (45/112; 40 ), 19F (29/112; 25.9 ), 14 (20/112; 18 ), 23F (12/112; 11 ) and 3-MA web others (6/112; 5 ). The non-vaccine serotypes commonly associated with penicillin nonsusceptibility (41/153; 22 ) were: NT (6/41; 14.6 ), 16F (4/41; 9.8 ), 13 (3/41; 7.3 ), 21 (3/41; 7.3 ), 34 (1/41; 2.4 ). In addition, 58 (231/398) were non-susceptible to TMP/ SMX, 18.6 (74/398) to tetracycline, 3 (12/398) to erythromycin, and 2 (8/398) to cefotaxime. Of the 153 penicillin non-susceptible isolates, 113 (73.8 ) were also non susceptible to TMP/SMX. The drugs involved in the most frequently identified patterns of multidrug nonsusceptibility, defined as being intermediate or resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics, were penicillin, TMP/SMX and tetracycline (14 of 398 isolates), penicillin, TMP/SMX and erythromycin (7 of 398 isolates), penicillin, TMP/SMX, cefotaxime (3 of 398 isolates) and penicillin, TMP/SMX, cefotaxime, and erythromycin (3 of 398 isolates).Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptPFGE analysis confirmed that 24 of the 156 (15.4 ) children were highly likely to have been colonized by the same pneumococcal PFGE type at multiple time points: 6A/B (n=9/24; 37.5 ), 14 (n=5/24; 20.8 ), 19F (n=4/24; 16.7 ), 34 (n=2/24; 8.3 ), 23F (n=1/24; 4.2 ), 3 (n=1/24; 4.2 ), 6C (n=1/24; 4.2 ) and 15B/C (n=1/24; 4.2 ). The most commonly identified sequence types were ST156 (14;[n=5]), ST 66 (14;[n=10]), ST177 (19F; [n=7]), ST 338 (23F;[n=6]), ST 3930 (6C; [n=3]) and ST 771 (34; [n=4]). Strains belonging to the ST 66, ST 156 and ST 177 were isolated more than once in the same child, indicating persistence in the environment for up to six months.DiscussionWe found carriage prevalence of 55 with temporal fluctuations, with lower prevalence of carriage occurring in the period from February to June. Temporal variation was not observed in a previous study conducted in England in a period of ten months [19] but was.Having had an episode of URTI in the last month increased the odds of colonization with a low-invasive serotypes. Carriage of low-invasiveness serotypes also varied over time, with a lower prevalence in the period from February to June (Table 2). Being white was associated with a lower odds of colonization with a low invasiveness serotype compared with mixed race children. However, these differences in effect sizes for the high and low invasiveness serotypes were not statistically significant.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptVaccine. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 February 03.Menezes et al.PageSerotype Distribution and Antibiotic susceptibilityAuthor Manuscript Author ManuscriptGenotypingTable 3 shows the distribution of serotypes recovered throughout the period of the study. The most prevalent serotypes were 6A/B (25.4 ), 19F (10.1 ) and, 14 (9.0 ). The serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13 accounted for 52.2 and 55.5 , respectively. The most frequent non-vaccine serotypes were 16F (4.8 ), 15B/C (4.5 ), 6C/D (3.5 ), 34 (3 ) and not typeable (7.3 ); 15.3 (61/398) of the isolates of S. pneumoniae did not have the capsular type determined by multiplex-PCR. We did not find any fluctuation in the distribution of serotypes during the study period. Overall, 38.4 (153/398) of the pneumococci were non-susceptible to penicillin, with MICs ranging from 0.12 to 8.0 /ml. The percentage of capsular types included in the PCV10 vaccine among penicillin non-susceptible accounted for 73.2 (112/153) as follows: 6A/B (45/112; 40 ), 19F (29/112; 25.9 ), 14 (20/112; 18 ), 23F (12/112; 11 ) and others (6/112; 5 ). The non-vaccine serotypes commonly associated with penicillin nonsusceptibility (41/153; 22 ) were: NT (6/41; 14.6 ), 16F (4/41; 9.8 ), 13 (3/41; 7.3 ), 21 (3/41; 7.3 ), 34 (1/41; 2.4 ). In addition, 58 (231/398) were non-susceptible to TMP/ SMX, 18.6 (74/398) to tetracycline, 3 (12/398) to erythromycin, and 2 (8/398) to cefotaxime. Of the 153 penicillin non-susceptible isolates, 113 (73.8 ) were also non susceptible to TMP/SMX. The drugs involved in the most frequently identified patterns of multidrug nonsusceptibility, defined as being intermediate or resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics, were penicillin, TMP/SMX and tetracycline (14 of 398 isolates), penicillin, TMP/SMX and erythromycin (7 of 398 isolates), penicillin, TMP/SMX, cefotaxime (3 of 398 isolates) and penicillin, TMP/SMX, cefotaxime, and erythromycin (3 of 398 isolates).Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptPFGE analysis confirmed that 24 of the 156 (15.4 ) children were highly likely to have been colonized by the same pneumococcal PFGE type at multiple time points: 6A/B (n=9/24; 37.5 ), 14 (n=5/24; 20.8 ), 19F (n=4/24; 16.7 ), 34 (n=2/24; 8.3 ), 23F (n=1/24; 4.2 ), 3 (n=1/24; 4.2 ), 6C (n=1/24; 4.2 ) and 15B/C (n=1/24; 4.2 ). The most commonly identified sequence types were ST156 (14;[n=5]), ST 66 (14;[n=10]), ST177 (19F; [n=7]), ST 338 (23F;[n=6]), ST 3930 (6C; [n=3]) and ST 771 (34; [n=4]). Strains belonging to the ST 66, ST 156 and ST 177 were isolated more than once in the same child, indicating persistence in the environment for up to six months.DiscussionWe found carriage prevalence of 55 with temporal fluctuations, with lower prevalence of carriage occurring in the period from February to June. Temporal variation was not observed in a previous study conducted in England in a period of ten months [19] but was.

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