Corporated as an explanatory variable of the HOMA in the multiple

Corporated as an explanatory variable of the HOMA in the multiple regression model, indicating that certain FAs in the profile and environmental factors influence its value. In this study, the AW group consumed more calories and fats than the obese groups, results that have been NVP-AUY922 molecular weight reported by other authors [58,59]; these findings may be due to underestimations in evaluations of self-reported consumption, especially in obese individuals, or, when excess weight is evident, obese individuals decrease food intake. Therefore, current alpha-AmanitinMedChemExpress ��-Amatoxin consumption cannot be correlated with nutritional status. We did not detect a consumption pattern that could explain the differences in the FA profiles among the groups. Qualitative analysis of diets allowed us to establish that these youth did not consume significant omega-3 food sources, such as fish or seed oils, which could explain to some degree the low proportions of these FAs in the different fractions. In any event, to eliminate the effect of consumption on the descriptive model of the HOMA index, an adjustment was made for these variables, and the model was not modified. This study has some limitations: the 24-h recall does not allow establishing individual associations with biochemical variables because of intra-individual variations in food intake; estimation of desaturase enzymes was performed using an indirect method due to technical difficulties involving their measurement in vivo. The diagnostic criteria for NAFLD in youth were not evaluated, which prevents establishing some degree of association with the profile of the fatty acids of the different fractions. Finally, it is expected that there will be further research involving more complex lipids, such as waxes and eicosanoids, and methodological designs that establish causal relationships between the FA profile and metabolic disturbances that make up MetS, especially in children and youths. 5. Conclusions This study detected proportions of some FA for youth with OBMS in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS, principally IR. High concentrations of total FFAs, high proportions of palmitic-16:0 in TG, high palmitoleic-16:1n-7 and low linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL, and high DHGL-20:2n-6 in PL and FFAs could all be early markers of IR in youths. The findings further suggest that the connection between FA profiles and metabolic disturbances is associated more with high WC than BMI. The OB group presented greater proportions of SFA and MUFA and lowerNutrients 2016, 8,10 ofproportions of PUFA, as well as some higher biochemical values than those youth with AW, suggesting the possibility of developing future metabolic abnormalities if weight gain continues.Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/8/2/54/s1, Table S1 Correlations between fatty acids of triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids fractions, and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. Acknowledgments: Resources were received from Colciencias Contract 487 (2012) and from the Universidad de Antioquia 2013?014 through funds from the Committee for Research Development. Author Contributions: Claudia Vel quez-Rodr uez designed the study and directed the statistical analysis. Juliana Berm ez-Cardona conducted the research and performed the statistical analysis. Claudia Vel quez-Rodr uez and Juliana Berm ez-Cardona wrote the manuscript and are responsible for final content of the article. Conflicts of Interest.Corporated as an explanatory variable of the HOMA in the multiple regression model, indicating that certain FAs in the profile and environmental factors influence its value. In this study, the AW group consumed more calories and fats than the obese groups, results that have been reported by other authors [58,59]; these findings may be due to underestimations in evaluations of self-reported consumption, especially in obese individuals, or, when excess weight is evident, obese individuals decrease food intake. Therefore, current consumption cannot be correlated with nutritional status. We did not detect a consumption pattern that could explain the differences in the FA profiles among the groups. Qualitative analysis of diets allowed us to establish that these youth did not consume significant omega-3 food sources, such as fish or seed oils, which could explain to some degree the low proportions of these FAs in the different fractions. In any event, to eliminate the effect of consumption on the descriptive model of the HOMA index, an adjustment was made for these variables, and the model was not modified. This study has some limitations: the 24-h recall does not allow establishing individual associations with biochemical variables because of intra-individual variations in food intake; estimation of desaturase enzymes was performed using an indirect method due to technical difficulties involving their measurement in vivo. The diagnostic criteria for NAFLD in youth were not evaluated, which prevents establishing some degree of association with the profile of the fatty acids of the different fractions. Finally, it is expected that there will be further research involving more complex lipids, such as waxes and eicosanoids, and methodological designs that establish causal relationships between the FA profile and metabolic disturbances that make up MetS, especially in children and youths. 5. Conclusions This study detected proportions of some FA for youth with OBMS in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS, principally IR. High concentrations of total FFAs, high proportions of palmitic-16:0 in TG, high palmitoleic-16:1n-7 and low linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL, and high DHGL-20:2n-6 in PL and FFAs could all be early markers of IR in youths. The findings further suggest that the connection between FA profiles and metabolic disturbances is associated more with high WC than BMI. The OB group presented greater proportions of SFA and MUFA and lowerNutrients 2016, 8,10 ofproportions of PUFA, as well as some higher biochemical values than those youth with AW, suggesting the possibility of developing future metabolic abnormalities if weight gain continues.Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/8/2/54/s1, Table S1 Correlations between fatty acids of triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids fractions, and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. Acknowledgments: Resources were received from Colciencias Contract 487 (2012) and from the Universidad de Antioquia 2013?014 through funds from the Committee for Research Development. Author Contributions: Claudia Vel quez-Rodr uez designed the study and directed the statistical analysis. Juliana Berm ez-Cardona conducted the research and performed the statistical analysis. Claudia Vel quez-Rodr uez and Juliana Berm ez-Cardona wrote the manuscript and are responsible for final content of the article. Conflicts of Interest.

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