Ng the Black Caribbean sub-sample of the National Survey of American

Ng the Black Caribbean sub-sample of the National Thonzonium (bromide) dose Survey of American Life (NSAL). The NSAL, the first national probability sample of Black Caribbeans ever conducted, provides an unparalleled opportunity to examine the demographic correlates of religious participation among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. For the purposes of this study, Caribbean Blacks are defined as persons who trace their ethnic heritage to a Caribbean country, but who now reside in the United States, are racially classified as black, and who are Englishspeaking (but may also speak another language). This initial investigation represents an important addition to and expansion of the current Zebularine dose literature on Caribbean religion that allows us to explore how social status (e.g., age, gender, marital status) and denominational factors function to pattern religious involvement within this population. This study is framed by several related areas of scholarship on religion and the immigration experiences of Black Caribbeans in the U.S. The literature review begins with a discussion of religion and the immigration experience and the functions of religion and worship settings for the individual and immigrant communities in host countries. This section is followed by a general discussion of religion and worship practices among Black Caribbeans immigrants in the U.S. and extant research on these questions. Specific issues characterizing the immigration experiences of Black Caribbeans are noted, including immigrants’ perceptions of racial hierarchies in the U.S. (as the receiving country) and the significance of race and ethnicity as dual identities for Black Caribbean immigrants. Finally, as one of the limitations of immigration research is the lack of comparison to broader populations in the U.S (Stepick et al., 2009), we conclude the literature review with a discussion of the functions of religion and worship communities among African Americans who share racial background and similar life experiences with Black Caribbeans.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptRev Relig Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 1.Taylor et al.PageReligion and ImmigrationReligious concerns and participation in worship communities have historically been important features of the experience of immigrating groups and a primary means by which new immigrants are incorporated into U.S. culture (Foley Hoge, 2007; Stepick et al., 2009; Warner, 1998; Yang Ebaugh, 2001a). This literature highlights several related themes regarding the role of religion in relation to immigrants. First, religion has a role in emphasizing immigrant identity. Religion and its institutions serve as ethnic repositories that provide the means by which immigrants attempt to retain their ethnic identity, while simultaneously adapting their culture to new circumstances (Yang Ebaugh, 2001a). Worship communities and their attendant rituals and observances help to develop and reinforce ethnic identities that emphasize one’s status as a co-ethnic (e.g., “ethnic hero”) and strengthen an “immigrant ideology” in which positive traits such as achievement, hard work, and piety are idealized (Bashi, 2007; McAlister, 1998; Stepick et al., 2009; Vickerman, 2001a). Second, religion and churches fulfill important social welfare and social capital functions. Religion and worship communities provide an array of social and psychological benefits for immigrants including the maintenance of i.Ng the Black Caribbean sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). The NSAL, the first national probability sample of Black Caribbeans ever conducted, provides an unparalleled opportunity to examine the demographic correlates of religious participation among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. For the purposes of this study, Caribbean Blacks are defined as persons who trace their ethnic heritage to a Caribbean country, but who now reside in the United States, are racially classified as black, and who are Englishspeaking (but may also speak another language). This initial investigation represents an important addition to and expansion of the current literature on Caribbean religion that allows us to explore how social status (e.g., age, gender, marital status) and denominational factors function to pattern religious involvement within this population. This study is framed by several related areas of scholarship on religion and the immigration experiences of Black Caribbeans in the U.S. The literature review begins with a discussion of religion and the immigration experience and the functions of religion and worship settings for the individual and immigrant communities in host countries. This section is followed by a general discussion of religion and worship practices among Black Caribbeans immigrants in the U.S. and extant research on these questions. Specific issues characterizing the immigration experiences of Black Caribbeans are noted, including immigrants’ perceptions of racial hierarchies in the U.S. (as the receiving country) and the significance of race and ethnicity as dual identities for Black Caribbean immigrants. Finally, as one of the limitations of immigration research is the lack of comparison to broader populations in the U.S (Stepick et al., 2009), we conclude the literature review with a discussion of the functions of religion and worship communities among African Americans who share racial background and similar life experiences with Black Caribbeans.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptRev Relig Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 1.Taylor et al.PageReligion and ImmigrationReligious concerns and participation in worship communities have historically been important features of the experience of immigrating groups and a primary means by which new immigrants are incorporated into U.S. culture (Foley Hoge, 2007; Stepick et al., 2009; Warner, 1998; Yang Ebaugh, 2001a). This literature highlights several related themes regarding the role of religion in relation to immigrants. First, religion has a role in emphasizing immigrant identity. Religion and its institutions serve as ethnic repositories that provide the means by which immigrants attempt to retain their ethnic identity, while simultaneously adapting their culture to new circumstances (Yang Ebaugh, 2001a). Worship communities and their attendant rituals and observances help to develop and reinforce ethnic identities that emphasize one’s status as a co-ethnic (e.g., “ethnic hero”) and strengthen an “immigrant ideology” in which positive traits such as achievement, hard work, and piety are idealized (Bashi, 2007; McAlister, 1998; Stepick et al., 2009; Vickerman, 2001a). Second, religion and churches fulfill important social welfare and social capital functions. Religion and worship communities provide an array of social and psychological benefits for immigrants including the maintenance of i.

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