Ely). For example, a 13.7-fold increase in IFN- was seen in

Ely). For example, a 13.7-fold increase in IFN- was seen in RDP at day 30 after infection, but only a 2.5-fold increase in SDP at day 81 after infection. 19 of 26 cytokines in RDPs had an approximate time of initial elevation to peak value between 30 and 60 days post-infection, whereas only 3 of 26 cytokines in SDPs did so. Additionally, the hierarchy of cytokine induction differed between SDP and RDP groups. RDPs had significantly and early XAV-939 web increased IFN-, TNF-, IL-1, IL-1ra, but a delayed IL-13 and VEGF compared with SDPs. Surprisingly, IL-13 in SDP reached peak value at day 33 after infection, compared to day 105 in RDP. Considering that cytokine storms are triggered by HIV, we further analyzed the dynamics of virus replication and its kinetic relationship with cytokine storms. To our MS023 web surprise, as shown in Fig. 2, we found the drop of viral load from peak to set-point was followed by a decline of most of cytokines in RDPs, whereas cytokines increased in SDPs. Second wave of plasma cytokine storms during chronic stage of HIV infection. We next asked whether HIV infected individuals have higher sustained levels of plasma cytokines during chronic infection compared to HIV-negative controls. As shown in Table 2, compared with HIV-negative MSM, chronicallyScientific RepoRts | 6:36234 | DOI: 10.1038/srepResultswww.nature.com/scientificreports/0-180 days post-infection Cytokine Eotaxin (?02) FGF-2 G-CSF GM-CSF IFN-2 IFN- IL-1 IL-1ra IL-2 IL-4 IL-5 IL-6 IL-7 IL-8 IL-9 IL-10 IL-12 IL-13 IL-15 IL-17 IP-10 (?02) MCP-1 (?02) MIP-1 MIP-1 TNF- VEGF HIV-negative MSM (n = 20) 2.4 (1.5, 3.5) 21.33 (13.5, 33.8) 27.3 (17.3, 46.0) 23.8 (18.8, 35.5) 8.0 (4.0, 12.0) 17.8 (14.0, 22.3) 11.0 (-4.5, 31.8) 7.8 (0.8, 13.8) 20.8 (13.3, 42.0) -47.5 (-71.5, 10.0) 9.0 (4.2, 17.7) 4.0 (-2.5, 15.0) 11.8 (-1.0, 18.8) 63.0 (33.0, 77.8) -2.0 (-8.0, 7.5) 21.5 (10.0, 30.3) 16.8 (8.5, 20.3) 5.3 (-1.8, 16.0) 5.7 (0.6, 12.2) 24.3 (18.8, 33.5) 35.2 (20.4, 56.5) 21.0 (10.0, 25.2) -0.3 (-6.5, 18.5) 47.5 (31.3, 59.5) 79.2 (52.0, 135.3) 2.8 (-1.0, 7.3) RDP group (n = 10) 2.5 (1.7, 3.8) 71.3 (25.5, 157.5) 70.8 (29.5, 128.5) 79.8 (31.5, 159.5) 36.0 (8.0, 62.3) 41.5 (15.8, 83.8) 87.1 (31.0, 174.1) 36.0 (9.5, 65.5) 61.3 (25.5, 104.0) -3.8 (-10.9, 2.6) -3.8 (-10.9, 2.6) 72.7 (8.6, 212.5) 50.8 (15.2, 96.6) 82.3 (39.0, 123.5) 34.3 (-2.0, 61.0) 44.0 (20.3, 84.5) 62.8 (15.5, 121.0) 116.1 (9.5, 212.6) 37.3 (4.8, 91.5) 50.0 (20.5, 84.5) 45.0 (28.3, 71.3) 13.5 (7.8, 21.0) 34.5 (5.5, 57.0) 87.3 (53.5, 172.5) 125.8 (91.5, 186.0) 13.8 (4.8, 45.8) SDP group (n = 10) 2.9 (1.8, 4.1) 36.0 (14.3, 76.0) 42.5 (21.5, 73.0) 32.5 (13.5, 60.5) 7.5 (4.0, 19.0) 20.0 (11.5, 36.0) 45.9 (-6.7, 97.5) 9.8 (-3.0, 28.0) 29.5 (12.4, 61.9) -9.0 (-15.2, -3.2) 15.5 (0.0, 40.3) 25.8 (2.3.65.0) 27.1 (2.1, 65.3) 75.0 (41.1, 112.8) 6.0 (-6.5, 3.8) 18.3 (6.0, 338.5) 24.0 (1.5, 47.0) 41.7 (-1.2, 97.6) 6.5 (-1.5, 38.3) 27.0 (11.6, 55.1) 23.7 (12.4, 41.0) 16.6(13.3, 21.7) 16.0 (2.0, 31.0) 56.5 (24.5, 97.5) 91.0 (59.0, 128.3) 1.9 (-6.0, 7.4) p value* 0.562 0.004 0.051 <0.001 <0.001 0.024 0.014 0.006 0.006 0.028 <0.001 0.016 0.108 0.817 0.034 0.003 0.002 0.054 0.009 0.094 <0.001 0.118 0.102 0.051 0.007 <0.001 0.5-3 years post-infection RDP group (n = 10) 2.6 (1.9, 4.1) 71.5 (34.6, 133.1) 72.5 (37.3, 129.8) 67.5 (32.9, 135.1) 29.0 (10.6, 51.1) 40.5 (17.5, 85.1) 88.7 (30.4, 177.6) 34.5 (9.33, 57.3) 59.5 (27.9, 103.3) 44.0 (-11.3, 1.3) 36.5 (8.5, 62.8) 71.1 (22.3, 164.5) 61.5 (23.1, 106.9) 83.0 (41.3, 129.0) 33.0 (3.8, 59.1) 47.0.Ely). For example, a 13.7-fold increase in IFN- was seen in RDP at day 30 after infection, but only a 2.5-fold increase in SDP at day 81 after infection. 19 of 26 cytokines in RDPs had an approximate time of initial elevation to peak value between 30 and 60 days post-infection, whereas only 3 of 26 cytokines in SDPs did so. Additionally, the hierarchy of cytokine induction differed between SDP and RDP groups. RDPs had significantly and early increased IFN-, TNF-, IL-1, IL-1ra, but a delayed IL-13 and VEGF compared with SDPs. Surprisingly, IL-13 in SDP reached peak value at day 33 after infection, compared to day 105 in RDP. Considering that cytokine storms are triggered by HIV, we further analyzed the dynamics of virus replication and its kinetic relationship with cytokine storms. To our surprise, as shown in Fig. 2, we found the drop of viral load from peak to set-point was followed by a decline of most of cytokines in RDPs, whereas cytokines increased in SDPs. Second wave of plasma cytokine storms during chronic stage of HIV infection. We next asked whether HIV infected individuals have higher sustained levels of plasma cytokines during chronic infection compared to HIV-negative controls. As shown in Table 2, compared with HIV-negative MSM, chronicallyScientific RepoRts | 6:36234 | DOI: 10.1038/srepResultswww.nature.com/scientificreports/0-180 days post-infection Cytokine Eotaxin (?02) FGF-2 G-CSF GM-CSF IFN-2 IFN- IL-1 IL-1ra IL-2 IL-4 IL-5 IL-6 IL-7 IL-8 IL-9 IL-10 IL-12 IL-13 IL-15 IL-17 IP-10 (?02) MCP-1 (?02) MIP-1 MIP-1 TNF- VEGF HIV-negative MSM (n = 20) 2.4 (1.5, 3.5) 21.33 (13.5, 33.8) 27.3 (17.3, 46.0) 23.8 (18.8, 35.5) 8.0 (4.0, 12.0) 17.8 (14.0, 22.3) 11.0 (-4.5, 31.8) 7.8 (0.8, 13.8) 20.8 (13.3, 42.0) -47.5 (-71.5, 10.0) 9.0 (4.2, 17.7) 4.0 (-2.5, 15.0) 11.8 (-1.0, 18.8) 63.0 (33.0, 77.8) -2.0 (-8.0, 7.5) 21.5 (10.0, 30.3) 16.8 (8.5, 20.3) 5.3 (-1.8, 16.0) 5.7 (0.6, 12.2) 24.3 (18.8, 33.5) 35.2 (20.4, 56.5) 21.0 (10.0, 25.2) -0.3 (-6.5, 18.5) 47.5 (31.3, 59.5) 79.2 (52.0, 135.3) 2.8 (-1.0, 7.3) RDP group (n = 10) 2.5 (1.7, 3.8) 71.3 (25.5, 157.5) 70.8 (29.5, 128.5) 79.8 (31.5, 159.5) 36.0 (8.0, 62.3) 41.5 (15.8, 83.8) 87.1 (31.0, 174.1) 36.0 (9.5, 65.5) 61.3 (25.5, 104.0) -3.8 (-10.9, 2.6) -3.8 (-10.9, 2.6) 72.7 (8.6, 212.5) 50.8 (15.2, 96.6) 82.3 (39.0, 123.5) 34.3 (-2.0, 61.0) 44.0 (20.3, 84.5) 62.8 (15.5, 121.0) 116.1 (9.5, 212.6) 37.3 (4.8, 91.5) 50.0 (20.5, 84.5) 45.0 (28.3, 71.3) 13.5 (7.8, 21.0) 34.5 (5.5, 57.0) 87.3 (53.5, 172.5) 125.8 (91.5, 186.0) 13.8 (4.8, 45.8) SDP group (n = 10) 2.9 (1.8, 4.1) 36.0 (14.3, 76.0) 42.5 (21.5, 73.0) 32.5 (13.5, 60.5) 7.5 (4.0, 19.0) 20.0 (11.5, 36.0) 45.9 (-6.7, 97.5) 9.8 (-3.0, 28.0) 29.5 (12.4, 61.9) -9.0 (-15.2, -3.2) 15.5 (0.0, 40.3) 25.8 (2.3.65.0) 27.1 (2.1, 65.3) 75.0 (41.1, 112.8) 6.0 (-6.5, 3.8) 18.3 (6.0, 338.5) 24.0 (1.5, 47.0) 41.7 (-1.2, 97.6) 6.5 (-1.5, 38.3) 27.0 (11.6, 55.1) 23.7 (12.4, 41.0) 16.6(13.3, 21.7) 16.0 (2.0, 31.0) 56.5 (24.5, 97.5) 91.0 (59.0, 128.3) 1.9 (-6.0, 7.4) p value* 0.562 0.004 0.051 <0.001 <0.001 0.024 0.014 0.006 0.006 0.028 <0.001 0.016 0.108 0.817 0.034 0.003 0.002 0.054 0.009 0.094 <0.001 0.118 0.102 0.051 0.007 <0.001 0.5-3 years post-infection RDP group (n = 10) 2.6 (1.9, 4.1) 71.5 (34.6, 133.1) 72.5 (37.3, 129.8) 67.5 (32.9, 135.1) 29.0 (10.6, 51.1) 40.5 (17.5, 85.1) 88.7 (30.4, 177.6) 34.5 (9.33, 57.3) 59.5 (27.9, 103.3) 44.0 (-11.3, 1.3) 36.5 (8.5, 62.8) 71.1 (22.3, 164.5) 61.5 (23.1, 106.9) 83.0 (41.3, 129.0) 33.0 (3.8, 59.1) 47.0.

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