95 CI did not include 1. For multivariate models, variables that were significant

95 CI did not include 1. For multivariate models, variables that were significant in the univariate analyses were included in different combinations, with the best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) [17]. To test for an association between the demographic risk factors and the odds of being colonized with a high or low-invasiveness serotype, we created three outcome categories: uncolonized, colonized with a high invasiveness serotype (4, 7F, 8, 9V, 14, 18C and 19A;), or colonized by a low-invasiveness serotype (3, 6A/B/C, 11A, 13, 15A, 15B/C, 16F, 17F, 19F, 20, 21, 22F, 23B, 23F, 35F and NT [Not Typeable]) [18]. We then fit univariate generalized logit models to these data and again used the bootstrap samples to test for significance at p=0.05.Vaccine. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 February 03.Menezes et al.PageResultsDemographic characteristics In January 2008, a total of 203 children were enrolled into the cohort study. Ages ranged from 1 to 48 months, and the median age was 24 months (interquartile range: 12?6). There was a predominance of mixed race (70 ), and 48 of participants were males. The families of the enrolled children reported low monthly PF-04418948MedChemExpress PF-04418948 income (less than USD 430.00), and crowded environments were observed in the households, with a median of five (range: 2 to 15) inhabitants per household. Most of the study children lived in households of two rooms (81.8 ), with a ratio of 3.5 residents per bed (Table 1). Prevalence of pneumococcal carriage In total, 721 swabs were collected throughout the study period, yielding 398 pneumococcal isolates. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 50.5 (February), 46.3 (June), 63.2 (September) and 48.8 (December) at each sampling point, respectively. Of the 203 children eligible for the study, 156 (76.8 ) provided nasopharyngeal samples at all four 3-MA supplier visits (Figure 1) At least one pneumococcal isolate from the nasopharyngeal sample was found in 74.4 (116 of the 156) of all children; 9.0 (14 of the 156) were not colonized at all; 19.9 (26 of the 156) were only once colonized; and 12.2 (19 of the 156) were colonized in all four visits. Risk factors for colonization Children who lived in households, where there was at least one child under two years, who lived in crowded households, and had a recent URTI in the last month had greater odds of being colonized in univariate analysis. Carriage prevalence varied in time, with decreased prevalence from February to June (dry season) compared to July to January (rainy season). Additionally, white children were less likely to be colonized than mixed children (OR, 0.52; 95 CI 0.29 ?0.93) (Table 1). From multivariate analyses shown in Table 1, prevalence of carriage varied over time, with lower prevalence occurring during dry season (OR, 0.53; 95 CI 0.37 ?0.78). Also, having contact with three or more children under two years old (OR, 2.00; 95 CI 1.33 ?2.89) and living in a house with a greater number of persons per room (OR, 1.77; 95 CI 1.05 ?3.10) were each independently and positively associated with pneumococcal carriage. We also considered whether specific demographic risk factors were associated with having higher odds of being colonized with a highly invasive serotype or being colonized with a lower invasive serotype. Children who lived in crowded households (persons per room, persons per bed) had greater odds of being colonized by high-invasiveness serotypes. On the other hand,.95 CI did not include 1. For multivariate models, variables that were significant in the univariate analyses were included in different combinations, with the best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) [17]. To test for an association between the demographic risk factors and the odds of being colonized with a high or low-invasiveness serotype, we created three outcome categories: uncolonized, colonized with a high invasiveness serotype (4, 7F, 8, 9V, 14, 18C and 19A;), or colonized by a low-invasiveness serotype (3, 6A/B/C, 11A, 13, 15A, 15B/C, 16F, 17F, 19F, 20, 21, 22F, 23B, 23F, 35F and NT [Not Typeable]) [18]. We then fit univariate generalized logit models to these data and again used the bootstrap samples to test for significance at p=0.05.Vaccine. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 February 03.Menezes et al.PageResultsDemographic characteristics In January 2008, a total of 203 children were enrolled into the cohort study. Ages ranged from 1 to 48 months, and the median age was 24 months (interquartile range: 12?6). There was a predominance of mixed race (70 ), and 48 of participants were males. The families of the enrolled children reported low monthly income (less than USD 430.00), and crowded environments were observed in the households, with a median of five (range: 2 to 15) inhabitants per household. Most of the study children lived in households of two rooms (81.8 ), with a ratio of 3.5 residents per bed (Table 1). Prevalence of pneumococcal carriage In total, 721 swabs were collected throughout the study period, yielding 398 pneumococcal isolates. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 50.5 (February), 46.3 (June), 63.2 (September) and 48.8 (December) at each sampling point, respectively. Of the 203 children eligible for the study, 156 (76.8 ) provided nasopharyngeal samples at all four visits (Figure 1) At least one pneumococcal isolate from the nasopharyngeal sample was found in 74.4 (116 of the 156) of all children; 9.0 (14 of the 156) were not colonized at all; 19.9 (26 of the 156) were only once colonized; and 12.2 (19 of the 156) were colonized in all four visits. Risk factors for colonization Children who lived in households, where there was at least one child under two years, who lived in crowded households, and had a recent URTI in the last month had greater odds of being colonized in univariate analysis. Carriage prevalence varied in time, with decreased prevalence from February to June (dry season) compared to July to January (rainy season). Additionally, white children were less likely to be colonized than mixed children (OR, 0.52; 95 CI 0.29 ?0.93) (Table 1). From multivariate analyses shown in Table 1, prevalence of carriage varied over time, with lower prevalence occurring during dry season (OR, 0.53; 95 CI 0.37 ?0.78). Also, having contact with three or more children under two years old (OR, 2.00; 95 CI 1.33 ?2.89) and living in a house with a greater number of persons per room (OR, 1.77; 95 CI 1.05 ?3.10) were each independently and positively associated with pneumococcal carriage. We also considered whether specific demographic risk factors were associated with having higher odds of being colonized with a highly invasive serotype or being colonized with a lower invasive serotype. Children who lived in crowded households (persons per room, persons per bed) had greater odds of being colonized by high-invasiveness serotypes. On the other hand,.

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