Such that trait distress would be represented in our models by

Such that trait distress would be represented in our models by one indicator in line with our single indicator of state distress (ostracism distress). Six children were missing self-report depression and order Baicalein 6-methyl ether anxiety data, but were retained for mixed model analysis. Further supporting our AG-221MedChemExpress Enasidenib combination of these measures, depression and anxiety scores were moderately related in our sample, r (40) ?0.419, P ?0.007. Social exclusion distress was assessed with the Need Threat Scale after the task. The Need Threat Scale is a 21-item questionnaire that has been shown to be reliable and valid as an indication of ostracism distress (Williams, 2007; Crowley et al., 2009b, 2010). It has been used in previous neuroimaging research to examine the psychological correlates of social exclusion associated with neural activation (Eisenberger et al., 2003; Lau et al., 2012). We used a revised Need Threat Scale for children. Feelings of distress or threat were assessed along the four dimensions of fundamental psychological needs: belongingness (`I felt like I didn’t fit in with the others’), self steem (`I felt unsure of myself’), meaningful existence (`I felt invisible’) and control (`I felt powerful': reverse-scored). Feelings are rated on a five-point scale from 1 (`Not at all’) to 5 (`Extremely’). Higher scores on the Need Threat scale indicate greater distress.ProcedureFollowing consent and assent procedures, child participants were photographed to generate pictures to be used in a Cyberball game as described below. Participants then completed questionnaires about their general distress (anxiety and depression). Next, an EEG sensor net was applied and the Cyberball social exclusion task was administered. Immediately following the Cyberball task, with the EEG net still in place, participants completed a measure of ostracism distress.Cyberball paradigmParticipants sat 60 cm from a 17 inch LCD screen in a dimly lit, sound attenuated room while participating in the Cyberball paradigm. In this game, each participant must throw and receive a virtual ball, along with two-pre-programmed players. Both of the friends played the game simultaneously in different rooms. Each of the participants was told that the two other players in the virtual game were real and they were playing with their friend and a stranger simultaneously. Unbeknownst to the participants, the game is pre-programmed. The game was designed to have two phases: fair play, a series of trials where the ball was evenly thrown among all the participants and exclusion, a series of trials where the ball was only thrown between the pre-programmed players. The play screen was programmed in such a way that each participant’s glove is at the bottom center of the screen and the other players’ gloves are on opposite sides of the screen next to their pictures. One of the pictures was that of the friend whereas the other was of a gender and race matched photo. In order to choose whom to throw the ball to, the participant used their left or right index finger on the response pad.Self-report measuresChildren’s Depression Inventory (CDI) is a widely used selfreport inventory used to assess the severity of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents between the ages of 7?7 years. The instrument contains 28 items scored from 0 to 2 with the range of scores from 0 to 56. It has a high reliability and validity (Kovacs, 1985). Higher scores indicate greater levels of depressive symptoms. Multidimensional Anxiety Scale.Such that trait distress would be represented in our models by one indicator in line with our single indicator of state distress (ostracism distress). Six children were missing self-report depression and anxiety data, but were retained for mixed model analysis. Further supporting our combination of these measures, depression and anxiety scores were moderately related in our sample, r (40) ?0.419, P ?0.007. Social exclusion distress was assessed with the Need Threat Scale after the task. The Need Threat Scale is a 21-item questionnaire that has been shown to be reliable and valid as an indication of ostracism distress (Williams, 2007; Crowley et al., 2009b, 2010). It has been used in previous neuroimaging research to examine the psychological correlates of social exclusion associated with neural activation (Eisenberger et al., 2003; Lau et al., 2012). We used a revised Need Threat Scale for children. Feelings of distress or threat were assessed along the four dimensions of fundamental psychological needs: belongingness (`I felt like I didn’t fit in with the others’), self steem (`I felt unsure of myself’), meaningful existence (`I felt invisible’) and control (`I felt powerful': reverse-scored). Feelings are rated on a five-point scale from 1 (`Not at all’) to 5 (`Extremely’). Higher scores on the Need Threat scale indicate greater distress.ProcedureFollowing consent and assent procedures, child participants were photographed to generate pictures to be used in a Cyberball game as described below. Participants then completed questionnaires about their general distress (anxiety and depression). Next, an EEG sensor net was applied and the Cyberball social exclusion task was administered. Immediately following the Cyberball task, with the EEG net still in place, participants completed a measure of ostracism distress.Cyberball paradigmParticipants sat 60 cm from a 17 inch LCD screen in a dimly lit, sound attenuated room while participating in the Cyberball paradigm. In this game, each participant must throw and receive a virtual ball, along with two-pre-programmed players. Both of the friends played the game simultaneously in different rooms. Each of the participants was told that the two other players in the virtual game were real and they were playing with their friend and a stranger simultaneously. Unbeknownst to the participants, the game is pre-programmed. The game was designed to have two phases: fair play, a series of trials where the ball was evenly thrown among all the participants and exclusion, a series of trials where the ball was only thrown between the pre-programmed players. The play screen was programmed in such a way that each participant’s glove is at the bottom center of the screen and the other players’ gloves are on opposite sides of the screen next to their pictures. One of the pictures was that of the friend whereas the other was of a gender and race matched photo. In order to choose whom to throw the ball to, the participant used their left or right index finger on the response pad.Self-report measuresChildren’s Depression Inventory (CDI) is a widely used selfreport inventory used to assess the severity of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents between the ages of 7?7 years. The instrument contains 28 items scored from 0 to 2 with the range of scores from 0 to 56. It has a high reliability and validity (Kovacs, 1985). Higher scores indicate greater levels of depressive symptoms. Multidimensional Anxiety Scale.

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